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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The frequency of gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation determines the number of pituitary gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors.

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) induces both synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, but rapid or slow frequencies of stimulation result in reduced LH and FSH secretion. We determined the effects of frequency of GnRH stimulation on pituitary GnRH receptors (GnRH-R). Castrate male rats received testosterone implants (cast + T) to inhibit endogenous GnRH secretion. GnRH pulses were injected by a pump into a carotid cannula and animals received GnRH (25 ng/pulse) at various frequencies for 48 h. In control animals (saline pulses) GnRH-R was 307 +/- 21 fmol/mg protein (+/- SE) in cast + T and 598 +/- 28 in castrates. Maximum GnRH-R was produced by 30-min pulses and was similar to that seen in castrate controls. Faster or slower frequencies resulted in a smaller GnRH-R response and GnRH given every 240 min did not increase GnRH-R over saline controls. Equalization of the total GnRH dose/48 h (6.6 ng/pulse every 7.5 min or 200 ng/pulse every 240 min) did not increase receptors to the maximum concentrations seen after 30-min (25 ng) pulses. Serum LH responses after 48 h of injections were only present after 30-min pulses, and peak FSH values were also seen after this frequency. Serum LH was undetectable in most rats after other GnRH frequencies, even though GnRH-R was increased. These data show that GnRH pulse frequency is an important factor in the regulation of GnRH-R. A reduction of GnRH-R is part of the mechanism of down-regulation of LH secretion by fast or slow GnRH frequencies, but altered frequency also exerts effects on secretory mechanisms at a site distal to the GnRH receptor.[1]


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