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Gene Review

Gnrh1  -  gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1...

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Gnrh, Gnrha, Lhrh, Progonadoliberin I, Progonadoliberin-1, ...
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Disease relevance of Gnrh1


Psychiatry related information on Gnrh1


High impact information on Gnrh1


Chemical compound and disease context of Gnrh1


Biological context of Gnrh1


Anatomical context of Gnrh1


Associations of Gnrh1 with chemical compounds

  • The hypothalamic hormone gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is released in a pulsatile fashion, with its frequency varying throughout the reproductive cycle [18].
  • This autocrine mechanism could serve as a timer to determine the frequency of pulsatile GnRH release by regulating Ca(2+)- and cAMP-dependent signaling and GnRH neuronal firing [1].
  • Messenger RNA and protein levels of GnRH and NMDAR subunits were measured in neuroendocrine brain regions in response to estrogen treatment, or across the reproductive cycle [21].
  • In addition to their regulation by sex steroids, GnRH neurons are affected by inputs from neurotransmitters such as glutamate, acting via the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) [21].
  • Castrate male rats received testosterone implants (cast + T) to inhibit endogenous GnRH secretion [24].

Physical interactions of Gnrh1


Regulatory relationships of Gnrh1


Other interactions of Gnrh1

  • Coupling of the agonist-activated GnRH-R to both G(s) and G(i) proteins was demonstrated by the ability of nanomolar GnRH concentrations to reduce membrane-associated alpha(s) and alpha(i3) levels and of higher concentrations to diminish alpha(i3) levels [1].
  • The percentage of GnRH neurons that double-labeled with NMDA-R1 was 2% in prepubertal rats and 3% in pubertal rats; this increased to 19% in postpubertal rats [2].
  • In order to address this question, the present study examined the effects of direct intrahypothalamic perfusions with leptin on the in vivo release of GnRH in ovarian steroid-primed ovariectomized rats utilizing the push-pull perfusion technique [29].
  • A slight but significant increase in GnRH pulse amplitude was caused by NPY (10(-7) M) in the female [31].
  • However, GnRH pulse amplitude was not affected by a Y5-receptor antagonist (10(-6) M) while the interpulse interval was significantly increased as shown previously in the male [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gnrh1

  • Administration of the GnRH agonist readily prevented, for as long as 3 weeks, the stimulatory effects of castration on the GnRH-R mRNA and mRNAs for the beta-subunit of gonadotropins, but not for the alpha mRNA, which remained at a high level [33].
  • We studied the expression patterns of GnRH and GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) in the same animals throughout the estrous cycle using real-time PCR [34].
  • Production of IPs is an early response of GGH3 cells to a GnRH agonist, measurable at 15-30 min and maximal at 60 min after treatment with Buserelin in [3H]inositol preloaded cells [35].
  • GnRH pulses were injected by a pump into a carotid cannula and animals received GnRH (25 ng/pulse) at various frequencies for 48 h [24].
  • RNA samples were isolated from micropunches of the preoptic area and mediobasal hypothalamus from individual brain slices and GnRH mRNA levels in the preoptic area and GnRHR mRNA levels in the mediobasal hypothalamus were determined by competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols [36].


  1. An agonist-induced switch in G protein coupling of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor regulates pulsatile neuropeptide secretion. Krsmanovic, L.Z., Mores, N., Navarro, C.E., Arora, K.K., Catt, K.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and NMDA receptor gene expression and colocalization change during puberty in female rats. Gore, A.C., Wu, T.J., Rosenberg, J.J., Roberts, J.L. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Pituitary gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor responses to GnRH in hypothalamus-lesioned rats: inhibition of responses by hyperprolactinemia and evidence that testosterone and estradiol modulate gonadotropin secretion at postreceptor sites. Pieper, D.R., Gala, R.R., Schiff, M.A., Regiani, S.R., Marshall, J.C. Endocrinology (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Parallel regulation of membrane trafficking and dominant-negative effects by misrouted gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor mutants. Knollman, P.E., Janovick, J.A., Brothers, S.P., Conn, P.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Modulation of gonadotropin secretion at the pituitary level by testosterone in gonadotropin-releasing hormone-treated male rats during food deprivation. Perheentupa, A., Bergendahl, M., Huhtaniemi, I. Biol. Reprod. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) as antidepressant: a psychopharmacological animal study. Massol, J., Martin, P., Adessi, G., Peuch, A.J. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) therapy alters activity of plasminogen activators, matrix metalloproteinases, and their inhibitors in rat models for adhesion formation and endometriosis: potential GnRH-a-regulated mechanisms reducing adhesion formation. Sharpe-Timms, K.L., Zimmer, R.L., Jolliff, W.J., Wright, J.A., Nothnick, W.B., Curry, T.E. Fertil. Steril. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Sexual stimulation induces Fos immunoreactivity within GnRH neurons of the female rat preoptic area: interaction with steroid hormones. Pfaus, J.G., Jakob, A., Kleopoulos, S.P., Gibbs, R.B., Pfaff, D.W. Neuroendocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Hypothalamic circuitry of neuropeptide Y regulation of neuroendocrine function and food intake via the Y5 receptor subtype. Campbell, R.E., ffrench-Mullen, J.M., Cowley, M.A., Smith, M.S., Grove, K.L. Neuroendocrinology (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Immunocytochemical localization in rat brain of a prolactin release-inhibiting sequence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone prohormone. Phillips, H.S., Nikolics, K., Branton, D., Seeburg, P.H. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. A prolactin-inhibiting factor within the precursor for human gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Nikolics, K., Mason, A.J., Szönyi, E., Ramachandran, J., Seeburg, P.H. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  12. Inhibition of dopamine biosynthesis by gonadotropin-releasing hormone in rat. Wang, W.K., Jenq, L.S., Chiang, Y., Chien, N.K. Nature (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. Gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulates calmodulin redistribution in rat pituitary. Conn, P.M., Chafouleas, J.G., Rogers, D., Means, A.R. Nature (1981) [Pubmed]
  14. Gene expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and its receptor in rat pancreatic cancer cell lines. Wang, L., Xie, L.P., Zhang, R.Q. Endocrine (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Pituitary and gonadal effects of GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone) analogues in two peripubertal female rat models. Roth, C., Hegemann, F., Hildebrandt, J., Balzer, I., Witt, A., Wuttke, W., Jarry, H. Pediatr. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Control of puberty by excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters and its clinical implications. Parent, A.S., Matagne, V., Bourguignon, J.P. Endocrine (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Estrogen directly respresses gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) gene expression in estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha)- and ERbeta-expressing GT1-7 GnRH neurons. Roy, D., Angelini, N.L., Belsham, D.D. Endocrinology (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. A mechanism for the differential regulation of gonadotropin subunit gene expression by gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Kaiser, U.B., Sabbagh, E., Katzenellenbogen, R.A., Conn, P.M., Chin, W.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. TALE homeodomain proteins regulate gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene expression independently and via interactions with Oct-1. Rave-Harel, N., Givens, M.L., Nelson, S.B., Duong, H.A., Coss, D., Clark, M.E., Hall, S.B., Kamps, M.P., Mellon, P.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Sp1 binds to the rat luteinizing hormone beta (LHbeta) gene promoter and mediates gonadotropin-releasing hormone-stimulated expression of the LHbeta subunit gene. Kaiser, U.B., Sabbagh, E., Chen, M.T., Chin, W.W., Saunders, B.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons, NMDA receptors, and their regulation by steroid hormones across the reproductive life cycle. Gore, A.C. Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Regulation of progestin biosynthetic enzymes in cultured rat granulosa cells: effects of prolactin, beta 2-adrenergic agonist, human chorionic gonadotropin and gonadotropin releasing hormone. Jones, P.B., Valk, C.A., Hsueh, A.J. Biol. Reprod. (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Negative regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene expression by a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist in the rat hypothalamus. Han, Y.G., Kang, S.S., Seong, J.Y., Geum, D., Suh, Y.H., Kim, K. J. Neuroendocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. The frequency of gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation determines the number of pituitary gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors. Katt, J.A., Duncan, J.A., Herbon, L., Barkan, A., Marshall, J.C. Endocrinology (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. Pituitary gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor content in rats with polycystic ovaries. Carriere, P.D., Brawer, J.R., Farookhi, R. Biol. Reprod. (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Mechanisms involved in the pituitary desensitization induced by gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists. Uemura, T., Yanagisawa, T., Shirasu, K., Matsuyama, A., Minaguchi, H. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Direct inhibitory effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone upon luteal luteinizing hormone receptor and steroidogenesis in hypophysectomized rats. Jones, P.B., Hsueh, A.J. Endocrinology (1980) [Pubmed]
  28. Cholera toxin and pertussis toxin provoke differential effects on luteinizing hormone release, inositol phosphate production, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor binding in the gonadotrope: evidence for multiple guanyl nucleotide binding proteins in GnRH action. Hawes, B.E., Barnes, S., Conn, P.M. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Leptin directly acts within the hypothalamus to stimulate gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion in vivo in rats. Watanobe, H. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Tamoxifen induces gonadotropin-releasing hormone self-priming through an estrogen-dependent progesterone receptor expression in the gonadotrope of the rat. Bellido, C., Martín de las Mulas, J., Tena-Sempere, M., Aguilar, R., Alonso, R., Sánchez-Criado, J.E. Neuroendocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Leptin effects on pulsatile gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion from the adult rat hypothalamus and interaction with cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript peptide and neuropeptide Y. Parent, A.S., Lebrethon, M.C., Gérard, A., Vandersmissen, E., Bourguignon, J.P. Regul. Pept. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Homologous upregulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor mRNA occurs through transcriptional activation rather than modulation of mRNA stability. Cheon, M., Park, D., Park, Y., Kam, K., Park, S.D., Ryu, K. Endocrine (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor gene is altered by GnRH agonist desensitization in a manner similar to that of gonadotropin beta-subunit genes in normal and castrated rat pituitary. Lerrant, Y., Kottler, M.L., Bergametti, F., Moumni, M., Blumberg-Tick, J., Counis, R. Endocrinology (1995) [Pubmed]
  34. Differential gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH receptor messenger ribonucleic acid expression patterns in different tissues of the female rat across the estrous cycle. Schirman-Hildesheim, T.D., Bar, T., Ben-Aroya, N., Koch, Y. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-receptor coupling to inositol phosphate and prolactin production in GH3 cells stably transfected with rat GnRH receptor complementary deoxyribonucleic acid. Janovick, J.A., Conn, P.M. Endocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  36. Effect of interleukin-1beta on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH receptor gene expression in castrated male rats. Kang, S.S., Kim, S.R., Leonhardt, S., Jarry, H., Wuttke, W., Kim, K. J. Neuroendocrinol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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