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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

In vitro antimicrobial activity of cefoperazone-sulbactam combinations against 554 clinical isolates including a review and beta-lactamase studies.

Cefoperazone was tested against 554 clinical isolates alone and with sulbactam in three combinations. The addition of sulbactam in low concentrations (less than or equal to 4 micrograms/ml) improved the spectrum of cefoperazone principally against gram-negative bacilli such as Acinetobacter species, some Pseudomonas species, and beta-lactamase-positive Enterobacteriaceae. Nearly all of the spectrum increase was achieved at a sulbactam level of less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml. Sulbactam was found to be an effective antimicrobial agent against Acinetobacter species (MIC50, 1.0 microgram/ml), Pseudomonas acidovorans (MIC50, 2.0 micrograms/ml), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (MIC50, less than or equal to 0.5 microgram/ml), and N. meningitidis (MIC50, less than or equal to 0.5 microgram/ml). Sulbactam had a higher affinity and binding constant for the plasmid-mediated beta-lactamases such as TEM-1 and TEM-2 compared to cefoperazone (greater than or equal to 10-fold difference). This finding was important as cefoperazone can be hydrolyzed at a moderate rate by the highly efficient TEM enzymes (less than 2% of clinical Escherichia coli isolates). Sulbactam increased the susceptibility (less than or equal to 16 micrograms/ml) of 220 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae to cefoperazone from 88.6 to 96.3% when 4.0 micrograms/ml of sulbactam was added. The cefoperazone antimicrobial activity was also increased against the nonenteric bacilli from a 69.5 to a 87.4% total inhibition. MICs among cefoperazone-susceptible gram-negative and gram-positive strains were routinely decreased 2- to 32-fold, as calculated from MIC90 results. Therefore, sulbactam should predictably increase the antimicrobial spectrum and clinical effectiveness of cefoperazone against nosocomial and other pathogens such as the plasmid-containing enteric bacilli, Bacteroides species and Acinetobacter species, and possibly provide the opportunity to reduce dosage schedules for infecting species already susceptible to cefoperazone alone.[1]


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