The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Pharmacological treatment of tobacco dependence.

Pharmacologically based approaches for the treatment of tobacco dependence are reviewed. The rational basis for pharmacologic treatment approaches is that tobacco dependence is partially, and critically, mediated by the actions of tobacco-delivered nicotine to the central nervous system. These actions include direct reinforcing properties of nicotine itself, tolerance and physiologic dependence, possible beneficial effects of nicotine in the alleviation of anxiety and control of weight, and neurohormonal regulation which can become important to the maintenance of emotional well-being and performance at work. Insofar as tobacco abstinence leads to negative consequences, via these biobehavioral mechanisms, pharmacologic intervention should be able to assist in initial tobacco detoxification and help tobacco abstinent persons to avoid subsequent relapse. The purpose of this review is to survey some of the efforts to develop such interventions, as well as to elucidate some of the issues relevant to such development. Four distinct approaches are discussed: (1) Nicotine replacement, in which physiologic dependence is transferred to a safer and more therapeutically manageable nicotine delivering formulation; this category includes nicotine polacrilex gum; (2) Blockade therapy, in which a drug is taken that blocks the reinforcing properties of nicotine should relapse occur; (3) Nonspecific pharmacotherapy, in which the biobehaviorally mediated correlates of tobacco abstinence are treated on a symptomatic basis; (4) Deterrent therapy, in which a drug is taken prior to smoking such that any tobacco use would produce reliable aversive effects.[1]


  1. Pharmacological treatment of tobacco dependence. Jarvik, M.E., Henningfield, J.E. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1988) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities