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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Valency of CD3 binding and internalization of the CD3 cell-surface complex control T cell responses to second signals: distinction between effects on protein kinase C, cytoplasmic free calcium, and proliferation.

We have studied the relationship of valency of CD3 stimulation and modulation of the CD3 receptor complex with biochemical and proliferative responses of T cells. Anti-CD3 Fab, as well as F(ab')2 and whole antibody caused rapid modulation of the CD3 antigen, whereas anti-CD3 conjugated to Sepharose did not. In the absence of monocytes, T cells stimulated with anti-CD3 Fab, F(ab')2, or F(ab')2-Sepharose showed differences in their ability to respond to second signals given by PMA, IL 1, IL 2, or antibodies to Tp67 and Tp44. None of the anti-CD3 signals alone caused resting T cells to produce IL 2, and only the Sepharose-bound anti-CD3 F(ab')2 caused T cells to express high levels of functional IL 2 receptors. Anti-CD3 F(ab')2-Sepharose-stimulated T cells produced IL 2 and proliferated in response to each of the second signals. Because anti-CD3-Sepharose did not cause modulation of the CD3 antigen, the ability of the Sepharose-bound antibody to induce T cells to express IL 2 receptors and to respond to individual second signals may be related to lack of modulation rather than valency of binding. Anti-CD3 Fab-stimulated T cells responded to PMA but required combinations of other second signals. T cells stimulated with unmodified anti-CD3 antibody or F(ab')2 fragments responded to PMA but did not respond to any other second signals alone or in combination. Stimulations that resulted in modulation (i.e., anti-CD3 whole antibody, anti-CD3 F(ab')2, or anti-CD3 Fab fragments) caused an increase in cytoplasmic calcium levels in resting T cells but blocked proliferation of T cells in response to mitogenic lectins or CD2 stimulation. Anti-CD3 F(ab')2 on Sepharose, however, did not block T cell proliferation. Whole bivalent anti-CD3 antibody or F(ab')2 fragments, but not monovalent Fab fragments, caused a rapid translation of protein kinase C activity from cytosol to membrane in the Jurkat T cell line. Because all of these modulate the receptor, these data indicate that the functional difference between monovalent and bivalent binding to CD3 is related to antibody valency and not to antigenic modulation. The use of Fab anti-CD3 stimulation that requires combinations of second signals for proliferation allowed an analysis of the functional relationships between IL 1, anti-Tp67, and anti-Tp44.[1]


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