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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Monocytes


Psychiatry related information on Monocytes


High impact information on Monocytes


Chemical compound and disease context of Monocytes


Biological context of Monocytes


Anatomical context of Monocytes


Associations of Monocytes with chemical compounds

  • The diet increased the eicosapentaenoic acid content in neutrophils and monocytes more than sevenfold, without changing the quantities of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid [30].
  • We suggest that activated monocytes synthesize transmembrane TNF at the site of inflammation and kill their targets by either cell-to-cell contact or local release of the TNF secretory component [31].
  • The ionophore-induced release of [3H]arachidonic acid and its labeled metabolites from monocytes in monolayers was reduced by a mean of 39 per cent, and the generation of leukotriene B4 by 58 per cent [30].
  • Prednisolone alone every other day (25 mg) reproduced this result, and by 23 weeks, neutrophil counts became stable at about 1500 per cubic millimeter. tcycling of monocytes, platelets and reticulocytes was also eliminated, as were symptoms that had accompanied neutropenic periods [32].
  • Mean mid-cycle monocyte counts were greater in the lithium group (P less than 0.05) and correlated with concurrent serum lithium levels (rs = 0.74, P less than 0.05) [33].

Gene context of Monocytes

  • We find that MCP-1 and IL-8 can each rapidly cause rolling monocytes to adhere firmly onto monolayers expressing E-selectin, whereas related chemokines do not [34].
  • These findings indicate that CD14 is a co-receptor for HSP70-mediated signaling in human monocytes and are indicative of an previously unrecognized function for HSP70 as an extracellular protein with regulatory effects on human monocytes, having a dual role as chaperone and cytokine [35].
  • In combination with CC chemokines, which block the infection with monocyte/macrophage-tropic viruses, SDF-1 could help to decrease virus load and prevent the emergence of the syncytium-inducing viruses which are characteristic of the late stages of AIDS [36].
  • This phenomenon of monocyte deactivation in septic patients with fatal outcome shows similarities to experimental monocytic refractoriness induced by LPS desensitization or by pretreatment with its endogenous mediators IL-10 and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) [37].
  • Recombinant IL-13 protein inhibits inflammatory cytokine production induced by lipopolysaccharide in human peripheral blood monocytes [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Monocytes

  • The recognition of these IgG-sensitized red cells in vitro by Fc gamma RI (an Fc gamma-receptor protein that binds monomeric IgG) on blood monocytes from the patients was also significantly decreased (P less than 0.001) but was partially improved by hemodialysis [39].
  • Ligation of the chemokine receptor CCR2 on monocytes and macrophages with its ligand CCL2 results in activation of the cascade consisting of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K), the small G protein Rac and lamellipodium protrusion [40].
  • Importantly, coculture with peripheral blood monocytes that easily take up cystine, reduce cystine, and secrete cysteine also restores reactivity of LP-Ts to T cell receptor/CD3 stimulation [41].
  • HIV-1 p24 levels (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in supernatants of infected cells from patients with tuberculosis, albeit variable, were significantly higher at days 10-20 of culture; the maximum levels of p24 antigen were greater in supernatants of HIV-1-infected monocytes from patients than maximum levels for controls (p < 0.05) [42].
  • In marked contrast to the preceding observations, HIV-infected monocytes produced little or no IFN-alpha before or after treatment with any of these agents [43].


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  15. Factor XIIIA transglutaminase crosslinks AT1 receptor dimers of monocytes at the onset of atherosclerosis. AbdAlla, S., Lother, H., Langer, A., el Faramawy, Y., Quitterer, U. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Lipopolysaccharide is a potent monocyte/macrophage-specific stimulator of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 expression. Pomerantz, R.J., Feinberg, M.B., Trono, D., Baltimore, D. J. Exp. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Toxoplasma gondii alters eicosanoid release by human mononuclear phagocytes: role of leukotrienes in interferon gamma-induced antitoxoplasma activity. Yong, E.C., Chi, E.Y., Henderson, W.R. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Human eosinophils express CD4 protein and bind human immunodeficiency virus 1 gp120. Lucey, D.R., Dorsky, D.I., Nicholson-Weller, A., Weller, P.F. J. Exp. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Complement component C3 fixes selectively to the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Legionella pneumophila and mediates phagocytosis of liposome-MOMP complexes by human monocytes. Bellinger-Kawahara, C., Horwitz, M.A. J. Exp. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Characterization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis phagosome and evidence that phagosomal maturation is inhibited. Clemens, D.L., Horwitz, M.A. J. Exp. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Control of TH2 polarization by the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Gu, L., Tseng, S., Horner, R.M., Tam, C., Loda, M., Rollins, B.J. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
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  24. Mechanism of suppression of cell-mediated immunity by measles virus. Karp, C.L., Wysocka, M., Wahl, L.M., Ahearn, J.M., Cuomo, P.J., Sherry, B., Trinchieri, G., Griffin, D.E. Science (1996) [Pubmed]
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  28. Expression of the M-CSF receptor is controlled posttranscriptionally by the dominant actions of GM-CSF or multi-CSF. Gliniak, B.C., Rohrschneider, L.R. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
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  30. Effect of dietary enrichment with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on in vitro neutrophil and monocyte leukotriene generation and neutrophil function. Lee, T.H., Hoover, R.L., Williams, J.D., Sperling, R.I., Ravalese, J., Spur, B.W., Robinson, D.R., Corey, E.J., Lewis, R.A., Austen, K.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  31. A novel form of TNF/cachectin is a cell surface cytotoxic transmembrane protein: ramifications for the complex physiology of TNF. Kriegler, M., Perez, C., DeFay, K., Albert, I., Lu, S.D. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  32. Correction of human cyclic neutropenia with prednisolone. Wright, D.G., Fauci, A.S., Dale, D.C., Wolff, S.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
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  34. MCP-1 and IL-8 trigger firm adhesion of monocytes to vascular endothelium under flow conditions. Gerszten, R.E., Garcia-Zepeda, E.A., Lim, Y.C., Yoshida, M., Ding, H.A., Gimbrone, M.A., Luster, A.D., Luscinskas, F.W., Rosenzweig, A. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. HSP70 stimulates cytokine production through a CD14-dependant pathway, demonstrating its dual role as a chaperone and cytokine. Asea, A., Kraeft, S.K., Kurt-Jones, E.A., Stevenson, M.A., Chen, L.B., Finberg, R.W., Koo, G.C., Calderwood, S.K. Nat. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
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  37. Monocyte deactivation in septic patients: restoration by IFN-gamma treatment. Döcke, W.D., Randow, F., Syrbe, U., Krausch, D., Asadullah, K., Reinke, P., Volk, H.D., Kox, W. Nat. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  38. Interleukin-13 is a new human lymphokine regulating inflammatory and immune responses. Minty, A., Chalon, P., Derocq, J.M., Dumont, X., Guillemot, J.C., Kaghad, M., Labit, C., Leplatois, P., Liauzun, P., Miloux, B. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
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  42. Enhanced susceptibility of blood monocytes from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis to productive infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Toossi, Z., Sierra-Madero, J.G., Blinkhorn, R.A., Mettler, M.A., Rich, E.A. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  43. A selective defect of interferon alpha production in human immunodeficiency virus-infected monocytes. Gendelman, H.E., Friedman, R.M., Joe, S., Baca, L.M., Turpin, J.A., Dveksler, G., Meltzer, M.S., Dieffenbach, C. J. Exp. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
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