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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Dissolution of calcified cholesterol stones and of brown and black pigment stones of the gallbladder.

The influence of different solvents on cholesterol and pigment stones was investigated in vitro. Stone analysis was performed chemically, with infrared spectroscopy (IRS), scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-microanalysis (EDXA) and wave-length-dispersive X-microanalysis (WDXA). Each set of stones came from one source: eight human calcified cholesterol stones (CHS), eight fragments of bovine radiopaque Ca-bilirubinate stones (BBIL), and two complete BBIL. CHS and BBIL fragments were treated with (1) a buffered, alkaline 1% ethylenediamine tetraacetate solution (BA-EDTA; pH 9.5); (2) with BA-EDTA and monooctanoin preparation (GMOC) alternately; (3) with GMOC alone, and (4) with methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE). The complete BBIL were treated with BA-EDTA and MTBE. Furthermore, two human black pigment stones (BPS) were incubated in BA-EDTA. Calcified cholesterol stones are not dissolved by GMOC alone, nor by alternating treatment with BA-EDTA. They are dissolved by MTBE. MTBE is unsuitable for complete Ca-bilirubinate stones but MTBE, GMOC and GMOC/BA-EDTA alternately disaggregate stone fragments. This means that stone fragments behave differently from complete Ca-bilirubinate stones, which is important for further in vitro investigations. Ca-bilirubinate and black pigment stones are disaggregated in BA-EDTA. These results were confirmed with six CHS, 12 BBIL and 12 BPS from 5 further patients, incubated in the most eligible solvent for any individual stone type.[1]


  1. Dissolution of calcified cholesterol stones and of brown and black pigment stones of the gallbladder. Leuschner, U., Wosiewitz, U., Baumgärtel, H., Leuschner, M., Iwamura, K., Klicic, X., Frenk, H. Digestion (1988) [Pubmed]
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