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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Effects of amodiaquine, chloroquine, and mefloquine on human polymorphonuclear neutrophil function in vitro.

This study concerns the in vitro interaction with human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) of amodiaquine, chloroquine, and mefloquine, three antimalarial drugs currently in use for the treatment and prophylaxis of malaria. It was found that mefloquine (100 and 50 micrograms/ml) significantly altered PMN viability while the other two drugs did not. Neutrophil chemotaxis was impaired by chloroquine (100 micrograms/ml) and mefloquine (greater than 10 micrograms/ml) but not by amodiaquine. Phagocytosis was decreased by about 50% in the presence of chloroquine (100 micrograms/ml) or mefloquine (10 micrograms/ml). The three antimalarial drugs altered neutrophil oxidative metabolism as assessed by luminol-amplified chemiluminescence. The strongest effect was observed with mefloquine, which abolished almost completely the neutrophil burst at concentrations of greater than 10 micrograms/ml whatever the stimulus used. This effect was not reversed by washing. Chloroquine and amodiaquine also impaired this PMN response by approximately 80 and 50%, respectively, but only at the highest concentration used (100 micrograms/ml). In the case of amodiaquine, the neutrophil response was restored by washing, except for stimulation with opsonized particles. After washing, the depressive effect of chloroquine was reversed completely in the case of phorbol myristate acetate stimulation and partly in the case of opsonized particle stimulation, but the formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-induced response was not restored. These data show that although they are structurally related, amodiaquine and chloroquine exhibit qualitatively and quantitatively different depressive effects on PMN function and probably interfere at different points of cell activation, although the precise mechanisms are as yet unresolved.[1]


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