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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

20-Hydroxyecdysone accelerates the flow of cells into the G1 phase and the S phase in a male accessory gland of the mealworm pupa (Tenebrio molitor).

The cells of the bean-shaped accessory glands of mealworms proliferate through the first 7 days of the 9-day pupal stage. Immediately after larval-pupal ecdysis, 25-27% of the cells were in the G1 phase, 60-65% were in the G2 phase, and the balance were in S phase. Over the first 4 days of normal development, the S fraction gradually increased, to reach its highest level in the mid-pupa at the time of the major ecdysteroid peak (Delbecque et al., 1978). Thereafter, the S fraction declined until over 95% of the cells had accumulated in G2 on Day 8. When 0-day pupal glands were explanted into Landureau's S-20 medium for 6 days, the G1 fraction remained fairly constant (25-30%) while S and the G2 fractions fluctuated. On the first day in vitro, the G2 fraction declined and the S fraction rose. On the second day in basal media, the S fraction fell and G2 rose correspondingly until 70% of the cells reached G2 when cycling stopped on the third day. With addition of 20-hydroxyecdysone to 0-day cultures, the S fraction increased quite sharply. It remained large for all 6 days of the experiment in the continuing presence of hormone. A 1-day pulse of hormone produced a transient increase in S. We blocked cell cycling with hydroxyurea in a stathmokinetic experiment and showed that 20-hydroxyecdysone accelerated the flow of cells from the G2 phase to the G1 phase by 2.5-fold. An increase in the G1 fraction was detected within 10 hr of hormone administration and the effect was dose-dependent with an ED50 of 5 X 10(-7) M for 20-hydroxyecdysone. We conclude that 20-hydroxyecdysone acts at a control point in the G2 phase. Incubation of the glands with 20-hydroxyecdysone for only 30-60 min followed by washout stimulated the flow from G2 to G1 and the effect persisted after transfer of the tissues to hormone-free media. Dose-dependent stimulation also occurred with ponasterone A (ED50 3 X 10(-9] but not with cholesterol.[1]


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