The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Molting


Psychiatry related information on Molting

  • Hemolin is also developmentally regulated as suggested by changes in its concentration during larval and pupal ecdysis (Trenczek, T., 1998. Endogenous defense mechanisms of insects. Zoology 101, 298-315; Lanz-Mendoza, H., Faye, I., 1999. Physiological aspects of the immunoglobulin superfamily in invertebrates. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 23, 359-374) [6].

High impact information on Molting

  • Ecdysone in Drosophila has been a paradigm for steroid hormones since its ability to induce gene activity directly was demonstrated by its effects on moulting and polytene chromosome puffing [7].
  • Per mRNA levels oscillate with an approximately 24-hour periodicity. lin-42 mRNA levels also oscillate, but with a faster rhythm; the oscillation occurs relative to the approximately 6-hour molting cycles of postembryonic development [8].
  • Expression of the egt gene allowed the virus to interfere with normal insect development so that molting was blocked in infected larvae of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) [9].
  • This enzyme catalyzes the transfer of glucose from UDP-glucose to ecdysteroids, which are insect molting hormones [9].
  • Makisterone A is the predominant ecdysone in the 96 +/- 4-hour-old embryo of the large milkweed bug and it is the first molting hormone with a C-24 alkyl substituent of the side chain to be isolated and identified from an insect [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Molting


Biological context of Molting


Anatomical context of Molting


Associations of Molting with chemical compounds

  • Instead, its most probable signalling functions are to control molting and induce a specialized non-feeding larval stage, although no cholesterol-derived signalling molecule has yet been identified for these or any other functions [24].
  • It is generally accepted that the prothoracic glands of insects produce ecdysone, which is converted by a 20-monooxygenase in peripheral tissues to the major molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone [25].
  • The cultured molting glands (Y-organs) from two species of crabs secrete a product whose behavior in several chromatographic systems and whose mass spectrum are identical with those of authentic alpha-ecdysone [26].
  • Cryptocyanin, a crustacean molting protein: evolutionary link with arthropod hemocyanins and insect hexamerins [27].
  • When injected 6.3 hr before ecdysis, AcD blocked EH release without altering the response of the nervous system to exogenous peptide [28].

Gene context of Molting

  • In D. melanogaster the levels of pburs, burs, and DLGR2 transcripts are increased before ecdysis, consistent with their role in postecdysial cuticle changes [29].
  • The molting defect induced by Ce-imp-2 deficiency was mimicked by depleting cholesterol or disrupting Ce-lrp-1 and suppressed, in part, by expression of the Ce-lrp-1 derivate [16].
  • The 2B5 early puff locus corresponds to the Broad-Complex BR-C) and encodes a family of transcription factors whose members are induced by the molting hormone ecdysone [30].
  • Mutations in daf-9 result in transient dauer-like larval arrest, abnormal reproductive development, molting defects and increased adult longevity [31].
  • We propose that the expression of Ance in imaginal cells is co-ordinated by exposure to ecdysteroid (moulting hormone) during the last larval instar moult to increase levels of ACE-like activity during metamorphosis [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Molting

  • Molecular cloning of lin-29, a heterochronic gene required for the differentiation of hypodermal cells and the cessation of molting in C.elegans [33].
  • Western blot analysis indicated that the mucosal tissue of the shell gland of immature, laying, and molting hens contained two forms of immunoreactive VDR, which were approximately 58 and 60 kDa [34].
  • Intravenous infusion at the rate of 0.25 mg kg-1 per day for 12 days provided a concentration of EL-979 in the blood of approximately 5 p.p.m. In A. maculatum this blood level prevented feeding in larvae and molting in nymphs, reduced numbers of females successfully feeding and prevented larvae production [35].
  • However, when thyroxine levels were restored to 20 ng/ml or more by dietary T4 supplementation, molting was resumed in animals that had undergone either thyroidectomy or thyroidectomy plus castration [36].
  • Northern blots revealed that transcripts of CfChitinase appeared prior to each molt and peaked on the day of ecdysis from the second instar to the pupal stage but disappeared immediately after the molt [37].


  1. Regulation of expression of a baculovirus ecdysteroid UDPglucosyltransferase gene. O'Reilly, D.R., Miller, L.K. J. Virol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Tetracycline treatment and sex-ratio distortion: a role for Wolbachia in the moulting of filarial nematodes? Casiraghi, M., McCall, J.W., Simoncini, L., Kramer, L.H., Sacchi, L., Genchi, C., Werren, J.H., Bandi, C. Int. J. Parasitol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Excitatory and inhibitory roles of central ganglia in initiation of the insect ecdysis behavioural sequence. Zitnan, D., Adams, M.E. J. Exp. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Thyroxine-induced molting and gonadal function of laying hens. Sekimoto, K., Imai, K., Suzuki, M., Takikawa, H., Hoshino, N., Totsuka, K. Poult. Sci. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Evaluation of Salmonella enteritidis in molting hens after administration of an experimental chlorate product (for nine days) in the drinking water and feeding an alfalfa molt diet. McReynolds, J., Kubena, L., Byrd, J., Anderson, R., Ricke, S., Nisbet, D. Poult. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. The insect immune protein hemolin is expressed during oogenesis and embryogenesis. Bettencourt, R., Assefaw-Redda, Y., Faye, I. Mech. Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Heterodimerization of the Drosophila ecdysone receptor with retinoid X receptor and ultraspiracle. Thomas, H.E., Stunnenberg, H.G., Stewart, A.F. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Similarity of the C. elegans developmental timing protein LIN-42 to circadian rhythm proteins. Jeon, M., Gardner, H.F., Miller, E.A., Deshler, J., Rougvie, A.E. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. A baculovirus blocks insect molting by producing ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyl transferase. O'Reilly, D.R., Miller, L.K. Science (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Makisterone A:a 28-carbon hexahydroxy molting hormone from the embryo of the milkweed bug. Kaplanis, J.N., Dutky, S.R., Robbins, W.E., Thompson, M.J., Lindquist, E.L., Horn, D.H., Galbraith, M.N. Science (1975) [Pubmed]
  11. Growth of an ovarian cell line of Galleria mellonella and its response to immune-inducing factors. Zakarian, R.J., Dunphy, G.B., Quiot, J.M. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Significance of the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) as the target of diflubenzuron in chitin synthesis inhibition in Drosophila melanogaster and Blattella germanica. Abo-Elghar, G.E., Fujiyoshi, P., Matsumura, F. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Development of onchocerca lienalis and O. volvulus from the third to fourth larval stage in vitro. Lok, J.B., Pollack, R.J., Cupp, E.W., Bernardo, M.J., Donnelly, J.J., Albiez, E.J. Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie. (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Erythrocytic ecdysis in smears of EDTA venous blood in eight patients with sickle cell anemia. Rao, K.R., Patel, A.R. Blood Cells (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Ecdysone receptor directly binds the promoter of the Drosophila caspase dronc, regulating its expression in specific tissues. Cakouros, D., Daish, T.J., Kumar, S. J. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. The Caenorhabditis elegans IMPAS gene, imp-2, is essential for development and is functionally distinct from related presenilins. Grigorenko, A.P., Moliaka, Y.K., Soto, M.C., Mello, C.C., Rogaev, E.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Identification of potential vaccine and drug target candidates by expressed sequence tag analysis and immunoscreening of Onchocerca volvulus larval cDNA libraries. Lizotte-Waniewski, M., Tawe, W., Guiliano, D.B., Lu, W., Liu, J., Williams, S.A., Lustigman, S. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Replacement of a cytosolic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase by a novel cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase in crustaceans that use copper (haemocyanin) for oxygen transport. Brouwer, M., Hoexum Brouwer, T., Grater, W., Brown-Peterson, N. Biochem. J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Expression of a 26S proteasome ATPase subunit, MS73, in muscles that undergo developmentally programmed cell death, and its control by ecdysteroid hormones in the insect Manduca sexta. Löw, P., Bussell, K., Dawson, S.P., Billett, M.A., Mayer, R.J., Reynolds, S.E. FEBS Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Developmentally regulated expression of a Balbiani ring 1 gene for a 180-kD secretory polypeptide in Chironomus tentans salivary glands before larval/pupal ecdysis. Dreesen, T.D., Lezzi, M., Case, S.T. J. Cell Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Draper-mediated and phosphatidylserine-independent phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by Drosophila hemocytes/macrophages. Manaka, J., Kuraishi, T., Shiratsuchi, A., Nakai, Y., Higashida, H., Henson, P., Nakanishi, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Onchocerca volvulus glycolytic enzyme fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase as a target for a protective immune response in humans. McCarthy, J.S., Wieseman, M., Tropea, J., Kaslow, D., Abraham, D., Lustigman, S., Tuan, R., Guderian, R.H., Nutman, T.B. Infect. Immun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Depression of synaptic efficacy at intermolt in crayfish neuromuscular junctions by 20-hydroxyecdysone, a molting hormone. Cooper, R.L., Ruffner, M.E. J. Neurophysiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Why do worms need cholesterol? Kurzchalia, T.V., Ward, S. Nat. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Regulation of the ecdysteroid titer of Manduca sexta: reappraisal of the role of the prothoracic glands. Warren, J.T., Sakurai, S., Rountree, D.B., Gilbert, L.I., Lee, S.S., Nakanishi, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Secretion of alpha-ecdysone by crab Y-organs in vitro. Chang, E.S., O'Connor, J.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  27. Cryptocyanin, a crustacean molting protein: evolutionary link with arthropod hemocyanins and insect hexamerins. Terwilliger, N.B., Dangott, L., Ryan, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Steroid regulation of excitability in identified insect neurosecretory cells. Hewes, R.S., Truman, J.W. J. Neurosci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Bursicon, the insect cuticle-hardening hormone, is a heterodimeric cystine knot protein that activates G protein-coupled receptor LGR2. Luo, C.W., Dewey, E.M., Sudo, S., Ewer, J., Hsu, S.Y., Honegger, H.W., Hsueh, A.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Hormonal induction of Dopa decarboxylase in the epidermis of Drosophila is mediated by the Broad-Complex. Hodgetts, R.B., Clark, W.C., O'Keefe, S.L., Schouls, M., Crossgrove, K., Guild, G.M., von Kalm, L. Development (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. DAF-9, a cytochrome P450 regulating C. elegans larval development and adult longevity. Jia, K., Albert, P.S., Riddle, D.L. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Ance, a Drosophila angiotensin-converting enzyme homologue, is expressed in imaginal cells during metamorphosis and is regulated by the steroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone. Siviter, R.J., Taylor, C.A., Cottam, D.M., Denton, A., Dani, M.P., Milner, M.J., Shirras, A.D., Isaac, R.E. Biochem. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Molecular cloning of lin-29, a heterochronic gene required for the differentiation of hypodermal cells and the cessation of molting in C.elegans. Papp, A., Rougvie, A.E., Ambros, V. Nucleic Acids Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  34. Immunocytochemical localization of vitamin D receptors in the shell gland of immature, laying, and molting hens. Yoshimura, Y., Ohira, H., Tamura, T. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Systemic activity of a benzimidazoline compound in cattle against ticks and biting flies. Boisvenue, R.J., Hair, J.A. Vet. Parasitol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  36. Thyroid and gonadal regulation of hair growth during the seasonal molt in the male European badger, Meles meles L. Maurel, D., Coutant, C., Boissin, J. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  37. A molt-associated chitinase cDNA from the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana. Zheng, Y., Zheng, S., Cheng, X., Ladd, T., Lingohr, E.J., Krell, P.J., Arif, B.M., Retnakaran, A., Feng, Q. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities