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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Neuropeptide proctolin in postural motoneurons of the crayfish.

The neuropeptide transmitter candidate proctolin (H-Arg-Tyr-Leu-Pro-Thr-OH) was associated with three of the five excitatory motoneurons innervating the tonic flexor muscles of the crayfish abdomen. Proctolin immunohistochemical staining occurred in cell bodies and axons of these three identified neurons. Stained axon terminals were detected across the entire tonic flexor muscle. Bioassay of extracts of the tonic flexor muscles indicated the presence of 370 fmol of proctolin/muscle or 670 fmol/mg dry weight. Bioactivity was eliminated in muscles in which the tonic flexor motor root was cut 2 months prior to extraction and in muscle extracts pre-incubated with proctolin antiserum. High pressure liquid chromatography purification of tissue extract indicated that all bioactivity in the crude extract was due to authentic proctolin. Our findings suggest that these three cells function as peptidergic motoneurons. A precedent for this is the proctolin-containing postural motoneuron of the cockroach.[1]


  1. Neuropeptide proctolin in postural motoneurons of the crayfish. Bishop, C.A., Wine, J.J., O'Shea, M. J. Neurosci. (1984) [Pubmed]
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