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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
Chemical Compound Review

Norflex     N,N-dimethyl-2-[(2- methylphenyl)-phenyl...

Synonyms: Plenactol, Euflex, Flexon, Flexor, Tega-Flex, ...
 
 
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Disease relevance of Euflex

 

Psychiatry related information on Euflex

 

High impact information on Euflex

  • This mechanism is optimized by unique musculoskeletal adaptations: the digital flexor muscles have extremely short fibres and significant passive properties, whereas the tendons are very long and span several joints [11].
  • Thresholds and latencies for motor cortex stimulation to excite thumb flexor muscles and the resulting fast mechanical responses were the same in both ON and OFF conditions, even though the patients were unable to execute fast thumb flexion movements voluntarily when OFF [12].
  • Current applied to the presynaptic lateral giant (LG) axon or to the neurite of the postsynaptic giant flexor motoneurone (MoG) spreads passively through the synapse into the adjacent neurone [13].
  • Rather, the unique structure of the forelimb is probably the result of evolved changes in the short head of biceps brachii to enhance its role as a forearm flexor [14].
  • In all limbs, a supernumerary preaxial digit is formed, but the flexor of the hindlimb toes is missing [15].
 

Chemical compound and disease context of Euflex

  • Baclofen regularly alleviated involuntary flexor or extensor spasms and increased resistance to passive movement of the legs but did not alter strength, gait, stretch reflexes, or clonus [16].
  • HbA1c Values Determine the Outcome of Intrasheath Injection of Triamcinolone for Diabetic Flexor Tenosynovitis [17].
  • Dantrolene is well established in the treatment of patients with muscle spasticity where it generally improves at least some of the components of spasticity (i.e. hyper/hypotonia, clonus, muscle cramps and spasms, resistance to stretch and flexor reflexes, articular movement, neurological and motor functions and urinary control) [18].
  • In the chronic spinal cat preparation, ED70 values for reduction of flexor spasms of 2.2 and 4.0 mg/kg by iv and po routes of administration, respectively, were observed for kojic amine, which was the most potent of the various hydroxypyrone derivatives investigated [19].
  • Before adding gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or glycine receptor agonists and antagonists, rhythmic motor activity was induced by bath application of acetylcholine (ACh), N-methyl-D,L-aspartate (NMA), or serotonin (5-HT) while monitoring bilateral ankle flexor and extensor electroneurograms (ENGs) [20].
 

Biological context of Euflex

  • By 24 hours after onset, 93 poor-outcome patients were identified by motor responses that were absent, extensor, or flexor and by spontaneous eye movements that were neither orienting nor roving conjugate; only one regained independent function [21].
  • In this respect, it is our opinion that rhythms and neural components always interact, just like flexor and extensor tones or excitatory and inhibitory cardiovascular reflexes, and that it is misleading to separately consider vagal and sympathetic modulations of heart rate [22].
  • M-35, which displaced 125I-labeled galanin from membranes of rat dorsal spinal cord with an IC50 of 0.3 nM, dose-dependently antagonized the effect of intrathecal galanin on the flexor reflex [23].
  • Other abnormalities included long-latency responses in the extremities in 2 patients, release of H-reflexes from flexor hallucis brevis muscle in 2 patients, and an Hmax/Mmax ratio of 98% in 2 patients [24].
  • Stretch reflex dynamics in spastic elbow flexor muscles [25].
 

Anatomical context of Euflex

  • More than 30 years ago, Frank and Fuortes proposed that the synaptic effectiveness of muscle spindle afferents associated with spinal motoneurones could be diminished by the activation of nerves from flexor muscles [26].
  • Dbx1 mutant mice lacking these ventral interneurons exhibit an increased incidence of cobursting between left and right flexor/extensor motor neurons during drug-induced locomotion [27].
  • We demonstrate how commissural interneurons (CINs), whose axons traverse the midline to innervate contralateral neurons, are organized such that distinct flexor and extensor centers in the rostral lumbar spinal cord define activity in both flexor and extensor caudal motor pools [28].
  • There was median-nerve neuropathy due to infiltration of the flexor retinaculum with amyloid in six patients [29].
  • The structure of rigor crossbridges was examined by comparing rigor crossbridges in fast muscle fibers from glycerol-extracted abdominal flexor muscle of crayfish with those in "natively decorated" thin filaments from the same muscle [30].
 

Associations of Euflex with other chemical compounds

 

Gene context of Euflex

  • The decrease in binding results in the inability of galanin to inhibit the C fibers stimulation-induced facilitation of the rat flexor reflex, demonstrating that peptide-PNA constructs act in vivo to suppress expression of functional galanin receptors [36].
  • M40 acts as a weak antagonist of galanin in the spinal flexor reflex model [37].
  • Eya1 expression is largely restricted to flexor tendons, while Eya2 is expressed in the extensor tendons and ligaments of the phalangeal elements of the limb [38].
  • Anti-sense IRAP probes bound to two of nine RA tissues, two of six OA tissues, one of one seronegative inflammatory arthropathy tissue, and none of one flexor tenosynovitis tissue [39].
  • Furthermore, N/OFQ (1 nmol) administered i.pl. blocked SP (i.pl.)-induced flexor responses, which were abolished by pertussis toxin pretreatment or in NOR gene knockout (NOR(-/-)) mice [40].
 

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Euflex

  • To investigate this I have now developed an animal model where changes occur in the threshold and responsiveness of the flexor reflex following peripheral injury that are analogous to the sensory changes found in man [41].
  • Furthermore, we show that the digital flexor muscles have minimal ability to contribute to or regulate significantly the 2.5-Hz cycle of movement, but are ideally arranged to damp these high-frequency oscillations in the limb [11].
  • Elbow flexor muscle strength declined by -5.5% (95% CI = -9.6% to -1. 4%) per 4 weeks in the control group but remained stable (0.0%; 95% CI= -1.4% to +1.4%) in the ATP group (P =.01) [42].
  • Our recent experiments, using patch clamp techniques, indicate that no tight electrical coupling is present between satellite cells and the muscle fiber dissociated from rat flexor digitorum brevis [43].
  • Electromyography (EMG) signals arising from the wrist extensor and flexor muscles, and a high-resolution EEG were recorded simultaneously [44].

References

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  17. HbA1c Values Determine the Outcome of Intrasheath Injection of Triamcinolone for Diabetic Flexor Tenosynovitis. Kameyama, M., Funae, O., Meguro, S., Atsumi, Y. Diabetes Care (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Dantrolene. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic use in malignant hyperthermia, the neuroleptic malignant syndrome and an update of its use in muscle spasticity. Ward, A., Chaffman, M.O., Sorkin, E.M. Drugs (1986) [Pubmed]
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  24. Periodic leg movements of sleep (nocturnal myoclonus): an electrophysiological study. Wechsler, L.R., Stakes, J.W., Shahani, B.T., Busis, N.A. Ann. Neurol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Stretch reflex dynamics in spastic elbow flexor muscles. Powers, R.K., Campbell, D.L., Rymer, W.Z. Ann. Neurol. (1989) [Pubmed]
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  27. Genetic identification of spinal interneurons that coordinate left-right locomotor activity necessary for walking movements. Lanuza, G.M., Gosgnach, S., Pierani, A., Jessell, T.M., Goulding, M. Neuron (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Functional identification of interneurons responsible for left-right coordination of hindlimbs in mammals. Butt, S.J., Kiehn, O. Neuron (2003) [Pubmed]
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  36. Cell penetrating PNA constructs regulate galanin receptor levels and modify pain transmission in vivo. Pooga, M., Soomets, U., Hällbrink, M., Valkna, A., Saar, K., Rezaei, K., Kahl, U., Hao, J.X., Xu, X.J., Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Z., Hökfelt, T., Bartfai, T., Langel, U. Nat. Biotechnol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. Galanin-receptor ligand M40 peptide distinguishes between putative galanin-receptor subtypes. Bartfai, T., Langel, U., Bedecs, K., Andell, S., Land, T., Gregersen, S., Ahrén, B., Girotti, P., Consolo, S., Corwin, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
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