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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Electrical stimulation at the wrist as an aid for the profoundly deaf.

The development and evaluation of a sensory electrical substitution aid for the profoundly deaf is described. The aid is a small wrist-worn device which converts sound into an electrical stimulus at the wrist. The initial aim was to give profoundly deaf people useful information from ambient sounds. Evaluation of the Mark 1 aid on 15 hearing and five profoundly deaf people indicated that such a device might be of use to some deaf people. Investigation of the sensitivity of the peripheral nervous system to electrical pulse stimulation showed that information could be transmitted in a more efficient manner so a Mark 2 aid was developed which incorporated circuitry to transmit pitch information, potentially useful in lipreading. The Mark 2 aid was shown to give improved results over the Mark 1 aid in transmitting voice intonation, but gave no help in an isolated word lipreading test. A portable Mark 2 aid was developed to enable clinical trials to be carried out on profoundly deaf people.[1]


  1. Electrical stimulation at the wrist as an aid for the profoundly deaf. Dodgson, G.S., Brown, B.H., Freeston, I.L., Stevens, J.C. Clinical physics and physiological measurement : an official journal of the Hospital Physicists' Association, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Medizinische Physik and the European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics. (1983) [Pubmed]
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