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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Transmission of Theileria parva by a population of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus under simulated natural conditions.

A 2 hectare paddock on the Muguga Estate, Kiambu District of Kenya (altitude 2100 m) free of Theileria parva-infected ticks was seeded by applying Rhipicephalus appendiculatus nymphs to cattle infected with Theileria parva (Kiambu 4). It was estimated that over 50 000 engorged nymphs fell onto the pasture from 4 cattle with high parasitaemias during the cold season (June). Samples of these ticks were placed in plastic cylinders under the vegetation in the paddock and sexual stages of T. parva were detected in gut lumen smears in these samples up to 21 days after repletion. Zygotes were first observed to transform into kinetes on day 55 and parasites were first detected in salivary glands of adults on day 64. Moulting of the nymphs started on day 60 after repletion and was completed by day 87. Cattle introduced into the paddock showed their first infestation with adult R. appendiculatus on day 64 after repletion of the nymphs and the infestation level gradually increased. On day 76 after repletion, 17% of a sample of adult ticks infesting cattle showed salivary gland infections with T. parva and this increased to over 70% by day 150. From day 360 onwards, a decrease in both the percentage of ticks infected and the number of salivary gland acini infected/tick was noted. In addition, T. parva infections within the salivary glands required a longer period of feeding in the older ticks before they developed into sporozoites. Cycling of Theileria through ticks was prevented by the removal of female ticks before they completed repletion. Lethal challenge levels of T. parva for cattle existed in the paddock up to day 547 after repletion, after which introduced cattle showed no infection or only a sub-lethal infection. Cattle introduced into the paddock on day 808 after repletion showed no evidence of T. parva infection. The tick infestation of introduced cattle decreased markedly from day 368 and infestation had virtually ceased by day 808.[1]


  1. Transmission of Theileria parva by a population of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus under simulated natural conditions. Young, A.S., Leitch, B.L., Dolan, T.T., Newson, R.M., Ngumi, P.N., Omwoyo, P.L. Parasitology (1983) [Pubmed]
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