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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Zygote


High impact information on Zygote

  • In loss-of-function mutants, the zygote does not elongate properly, and the cells of the basal lineage are eventually incorporated into the embryo instead of differentiating the extra-embryonic suspensor [6].
  • In C. elegans, the PAR-1 kinase is localized to the posterior of the zygote and is required for anterior-posterior axis formation [7].
  • Unexpectedly, removal of the Sxl gene in the zygote mitigates both the migration and mitotic defects of nos- germ cells [8].
  • PAR-1 protein is localized to the posterior periphery of the zygote and is distributed in a polar fashion preceding the asymmetric divisions of the germline lineage [9].
  • We now have introduced the wild-type MBP gene into the germ line of shiverer mice by microinjection into fertilized eggs [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Zygote


Biological context of Zygote

  • Only X linkage of the H-Y gene creates a compelling evolutionary need to change the female sex chromosome constitution from XX to XO, and to abandon the dosage compensation by an X inactivation mechanism, so that the nonproductive XH-YX zygote can be eliminated as an embryonic lethal [14].
  • In the absence of Taz1, telomere clustering at the spindle pole bodies is disrupted, meiotic recombination is reduced, and both spore viability and the ability of zygotes to re-enter mitosis are impaired to a level that would be expected if chromosome segregation were occurring randomly [15].
  • From these results, we conclude that centrosome reproduction in sea urchin zygotes is not controlled by the accumulation of cyclin proteins or the synthesis of centrosome-specific proteins at each cell cycle [16].
  • We have used two different experimental approaches to demonstrate topological separation of parental genomes in preimplantation mouse embryos: mouse eggs fertilized with 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled sperm followed by detection of BrdU in early diploid embryos, and differential heterochromatin staining in mouse interspecific hybrid embryos [17].
  • Fus2 may interact with structures involved in the alignment of the nuclei during cell fusion, because fus2 mutants have strong defects in karyogamy and fail to orient microtubules between parental nuclei in zygotes [18].

Anatomical context of Zygote

  • In mutant zygotes with abnormal spindle orientations and in wild-type zygotes treated with the microtubule inhibitors nocodazole, colcemid, vinblastine, and griseofulvin, both P-granule segregation to the posterior pole and the concomitant pseudocleavage occur apparently normally, but the normally concurrent migration of the pronuclei is inhibited [19].
  • In zygotes formed by mating two ugo1 cells, mitochondria do not fuse and mix their matrix contents [20].
  • Centrosomes repeatedly reproduce in sea urchin zygotes arrested in S phase, whether cyclin-dependent kinase 1-cyclin B (Cdk1-B) activity remains at prefertilization levels or rises to mitotic values [21].
  • In adult mice, Sebox RNA was found in maturing oocytes and in fertilized eggs; however, the abundance of Sebox RNA is decreased in the two-cell embryo, and little or none was detected in the four-cell embryo [22].
  • RNA phenotyping shows transcripts for the GH receptor and GH-binding protein in mouse preimplantation embryos of all stages from fertilized eggs (day 1) to blastocysts (day 4) [23].

Associations of Zygote with chemical compounds


Gene context of Zygote

  • This result suggests that a mechanism other than cytoplasmic flow or mlc-4/nmy-2 activity can generate some a-p asymmetries in the C. elegans zygote [29].
  • When the GS17 gene is injected into fertilized eggs, transcription from the injected DNA mimics the expression pattern of the endogenous gene, i.e., both the switch-on and switch-off of transcription are correctly regulated [30].
  • The ATML1 gene was first expressed in the apical cell after the first asymmetric division of the zygote and continued to be expressed in all proembryo cells until the eight-cell stage [31].
  • Transcripts of the XIST gene were detected as early as the 1-cell zygote and, with increasing efficiency, through to the 8-cell stage of preimplantation development [32].
  • Although these LEC2-induced RNAs accumulate primarily during the maturation phase, we show that a subset, including AGL15 and IAA30, accumulate in seeds containing zygotes [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Zygote


  1. An important developmental role for oligosaccharides during early embryogenesis of cyprinid fish. Bakkers, J., Semino, C.E., Stroband, H., Kijne, J.W., Robbins, P.W., Spaink, H.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Cytogenetics of human oocytes, zygotes, and embryos after in vitro fertilization. Zenzes, M.T., Casper, R.F. Hum. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Spontaneous abortion among pregnancies conceived using assisted reproductive technology in the United States. Schieve, L.A., Tatham, L., Peterson, H.B., Toner, J., Jeng, G. Obstetrics and gynecology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. A low-dose stimulation protocol using highly purified follicle-stimulating hormone can lead to high pregnancy rates in in vitro fertilization patients with polycystic ovaries who are at risk of a high ovarian response to gonadotropins. Marci, R., Senn, A., Dessole, S., Chanson, A., Loumaye, E., De Grandi, P., Germond, M. Fertil. Steril. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of glucose starvation on the expression of transferred tsx genes in Escherichia coli K12 zygotes. Leal, J. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1976) [Pubmed]
  6. A MAPKK kinase gene regulates extra-embryonic cell fate in Arabidopsis. Lukowitz, W., Roeder, A., Parmenter, D., Somerville, C. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. The Drosophila homolog of C. elegans PAR-1 organizes the oocyte cytoskeleton and directs oskar mRNA localization to the posterior pole. Shulman, J.M., Benton, R., St Johnston, D. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Novel functions of nanos in downregulating mitosis and transcription during the development of the Drosophila germline. Deshpande, G., Calhoun, G., Yanowitz, J.L., Schedl, P.D. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. par-1, a gene required for establishing polarity in C. elegans embryos, encodes a putative Ser/Thr kinase that is asymmetrically distributed. Guo, S., Kemphues, K.J. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression of a myelin basic protein gene in transgenic shiverer mice: correction of the dysmyelinating phenotype. Readhead, C., Popko, B., Takahashi, N., Shine, H.D., Saavedra, R.A., Sidman, R.L., Hood, L. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Zinc amelioration of cadmium toxicity on preimplantation mouse zygotes in vitro. Yu, H.S., Chan, S.T. Teratology (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Effects of metal ions and CCl4 on sea urchin embryo (Paracentrotus lividus). Congiu, A.M., Calendi, E., Ugazio, G. Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Biological activity of some Patagonian plants. Cuadra, P., Furrianca, M., Oyarzún, A., Yáñez, E., Gallardo, A., Fajardo, V. Fitoterapia (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Testis-determining H-Y antigen in XO males of the mole-vole (Ellobius lutescens). Nagai, Y., Ohno, S. Cell (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Fission yeast Taz1 protein is required for meiotic telomere clustering and recombination. Cooper, J.P., Watanabe, Y., Nurse, P. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Protein synthesis and the cell cycle: centrosome reproduction in sea urchin eggs is not under translational control. Sluder, G., Miller, F.J., Cole, R., Rieder, C.L. J. Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Spatial separation of parental genomes in preimplantation mouse embryos. Mayer, W., Smith, A., Fundele, R., Haaf, T. J. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Fus2 localizes near the site of cell fusion and is required for both cell fusion and nuclear alignment during zygote formation. Elion, E.A., Trueheart, J., Fink, G.R. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Generation of asymmetry and segregation of germ-line granules in early C. elegans embryos. Strome, S., Wood, W.B. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. UGO1 encodes an outer membrane protein required for mitochondrial fusion. Sesaki, H., Jensen, R.E. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. The coordination of centrosome reproduction with nuclear events of the cell cycle in the sea urchin zygote. Hinchcliffe, E.H., Cassels, G.O., Rieder, C.L., Sluder, G. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Mouse Sebox homeobox gene expression in skin, brain, oocytes, and two-cell embryos. Cinquanta, M., Rovescalli, A.C., Kozak, C.A., Nirenberg, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Functional growth hormone (GH) receptors and GH are expressed by preimplantation mouse embryos: a role for GH in early embryogenesis? Pantaleon, M., Whiteside, E.J., Harvey, M.B., Barnard, R.T., Waters, M.J., Kaye, P.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. The dynamics of maternal poly(A)-containing mRNA in fertilized sea urchin eggs. Wilt, F.H. Cell (1977) [Pubmed]
  25. Microtubule behavior in the growth cones of living neurons during axon elongation. Tanaka, E.M., Kirschner, M.W. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Lidocaine reversibly inhibits fertilization in Chlamydomonas: a possible role for calcium in sexual signalling. Snell, W.J., Buchanan, M., Clausell, A. J. Cell Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  27. Hierarchies of protein cross-linking in the extracellular matrix: involvement of an egg surface transglutaminase in early stages of fertilization envelope assembly. Battaglia, D.E., Shapiro, B.M. J. Cell Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  28. High frequency of mosaic mutants produced by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea exposure of mouse zygotes. Russell, L.B., Bangham, J.W., Stelzner, K.F., Hunsicker, P.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. The nonmuscle myosin regulatory light chain gene mlc-4 is required for cytokinesis, anterior-posterior polarity, and body morphology during Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis. Shelton, C.A., Carter, J.C., Ellis, G.C., Bowerman, B. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Developmental regulation of a gastrula-specific gene injected into fertilized Xenopus eggs. Krieg, P.A., Melton, D.A. EMBO J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  31. Identification of a meristem L1 layer-specific gene in Arabidopsis that is expressed during embryonic pattern formation and defines a new class of homeobox genes. Lu, P., Porat, R., Nadeau, J.A., O'Neill, S.D. Plant Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. XIST expression in human oocytes and preimplantation embryos. Daniels, R., Zuccotti, M., Kinis, T., Serhal, P., Monk, M. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Genes directly regulated by LEAFY COTYLEDON2 provide insight into the control of embryo maturation and somatic embryogenesis. Braybrook, S.A., Stone, S.L., Park, S., Bui, A.Q., Le, B.H., Fischer, R.L., Goldberg, R.B., Harada, J.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. Genome-wide methylation patterns in normal and uniparental early mouse embryos. Barton, S.C., Arney, K.L., Shi, W., Niveleau, A., Fundele, R., Surani, M.A., Haaf, T. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Expression of epithin in mouse preimplantation development: its functional role in compaction. Khang, I., Sonn, S., Park, J.H., Rhee, K., Park, D., Kim, K. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Regulation of carbon flux from amino acids into sugar phosphates in Xenopus embryos. Dworkin, M.B., Dworkin-Rastl, E. Dev. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  37. Caffeine-induced calcium release in sea urchin eggs and the effect of continuous versus pulsed application on the mitotic apparatus. Harris, P.J. Dev. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  38. Regulation of the appearance of division asynchrony and microtubule-dependent chromosome cycles in Xenopus laevis embryos. Clute, P., Masui, Y. Dev. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
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