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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Single unilateral vaginal ectopic ureter: is it really a rarity?

Although previously regarded as a rarity, 13 of the 20 published cases of single unilateral vaginal ectopic ureter have been reported within the last year. We have seen 4 cases of a single unilateral vaginal ectopic ureter within a 4-month interval. The relationship of vaginal ureteral ectopia to müllerian and mesonephric duct anomalies is discussed. If the ureteral bud originates laterally from the mesonephric duct then the ureter may retain its connection with the mesonephric duct while failing to connect to the bladder. This condition combined with persistence of the distal mesonephric (Gartner's) duct, which ruptures vaginally, accounts for vaginal ureteral ectopia and incontinence. The diagnostic studies for vaginal ureteral ectopia include excretory urography, radionuclide scanning, ultrasonography and administration of oral phenazopyridine in conjunction with careful vaginoscopic examination. The combination of lifelong wetting and solitary kidney on excretory urography should alert the urologist to this syndrome. The single unilateral vaginal ectopic ureter may be more common than has been suggested previously.[1]


  1. Single unilateral vaginal ectopic ureter: is it really a rarity? Weiss, J.P., Duckett, J.W., Snyder, H.M. J. Urol. (1984) [Pubmed]
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