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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Ureter

  • The occurrence of WG in the ureter in relation to the processes causing ureteral obstruction and the recurrences of WG after kidney transplantation and its treatment are briefly reviewed [1].
  • Arteriograms and ureter catheterization showed the stenosis to be severe, but the unstimulated renal vein renin and angiotensin II differential to be modest [2].
  • Misexpression of fgf8 under the control of the 8.5-kb upstream region resulted in polycystic kidneys, demonstrating the general usefulness of Pax-2 regulatory sequences in misexpression of foreign genes in the ureter and collecting duct system of the kidney in transgenic approaches in mice [3].
  • To investigate whether this novel molecule can be exploited for therapy of renal fibrosis, we determined the effect of exogenous Smad7, introduced by a recombinant adenovirus vector combined with in vivo electroporation (EP), on UUO-induced renal fibrosis in rats.METHODS: A model of UUO was made in SD rats by ligating their left ureters [4].
  • Transrenal closure of the ureter with butyl-2-cyanoacrylate using adjuvant balloon catheter occlusion was successfully performed for the palliative management of inoperable vesicovaginal and vesicosacral fistulas in 3 patients [5].

Psychiatry related information on Ureter


High impact information on Ureter

  • We show that the common nephric duct does not differentiate into the trigone but instead undergoes apoptosis, a crucial step for ureter transposition controlled by vitamin A-induced signals from the primitive bladder [8].
  • Our studies indicate that formation of the trigonal wedge may be essential for correct insertion of the distal ureters into the bladder, and that these events are mediated by the vitamin A and Ret signaling pathways [9].
  • Almost 1% of human infants are born with urogenital abnormalities, many of which are linked to irregular connections between the distal ureters and the bladder [9].
  • In the developing kidney, Pax-2 is expressed in the induced mesenchyme, in the ureter epithelium, and in early epithelial structures derived from the mesenchyme [10].
  • The gene encoding the T-box transcription factor Tbx18 was expressed in undifferentiated mesenchymal cells surrounding the distal ureter stalk [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Ureter


Biological context of Ureter

  • These data provide the first demonstration of MMP9 and MMP2 production in vivo by 11-d embryonic kidneys and further show that MMP9 is required in vitro for branching morphogenesis of the ureter bud [17].
  • LOH within the RB locus was observed in 5 of 27 informative cases of primary bladder, ureter, or renal pelvis carcinoma [18].
  • This phenotype is likely to be primarily caused by the absence of the inductive signal from the ureter, as the Sall1-deficient mesenchyme is competent with respect to epithelial differentiation [19].
  • Upregulation of patched 1, the sonic hedgehog receptor and a downstream target gene of the signaling pathway in the mesenchyme surrounding the distal collecting ducts and the ureter suggests that sonic hedgehog acts as a paracrine signal [20].
  • Pretreatment of ureteral strips with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (10(-6) M) abolished the inhibitory action of the corticosteroids on peristalsis, consistent with the suggestion that the action of steroids on the ureter is mediated via the synthesis of the anti-phospholipase protein, lipocortin [21].

Anatomical context of Ureter

  • Metabolic and cellular alterations underlying the exaggerated renal prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis in ureter obstruction in rabbits. Inflammatory response involving fibroblasts and mononuclear cells [22].
  • We suggest that Wnt-11 acts as an autocrine factor within the ureter epithelium and that its expression is regulated at least in part by proteoglycans [23].
  • 1. Among normal human tissues, NKX3.1 expression was seen in testis, in rare pulmonary mucous glands, and in isolated regions of transitional epithelium of the ureter [24].
  • In the mesonephros and metanephros the expression of Pax8 was localized to the mesenchymal condensations, which are induced by the nephric duct and ureter, respectively [25].
  • Although the abnormal interaction between the ureteral bud and metanephric blastema leads to renal hypodysplasia, vesicoureteral reflux, and ectopic ureters to name a few, the genetic and biochemical modulation of urinary tract development is not understood [26].

Associations of Ureter with chemical compounds

  • However, postobstruction reversal of prostaglandin production by the agonist-stimulated perfused kidney was not reflected in the cortical microsomal cyclooxygenase activity, which is greatly enhanced during ureter obstruction and does not decrease after removal of the obstruction [22].
  • Reversal (3 or 10 d) of the ureter obstruction resulted in a reduction in the vasoactive peptide-induced release of prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane A2 from the perfused hydronephrotic kidney [22].
  • Unilateral ureter obstruction in rabbits produced profound changes in endogenous and exogenous renal arachidonic acid metabolism [22].
  • Reflux ceased in 113 (79%) of the 143 ureters after a single injection of polytef paste [27].
  • Recent studies implicate a receptor-type tyrosine kinase as a target of inductive signals in the developing ureter [28].

Gene context of Ureter

  • Here we show that ureter maturation depends on formation of the 'trigonal wedge', a newly identified epithelial outgrowth from the base of the Wolffian ducts, and that the distal ureter abnormalities seen in Rara(-/-) Rarb2(-/-) and Ret(-/-) mutant mice are probably caused by a failure of this process [9].
  • Here we demonstrate that Wnt-4, a secreted glycoprotein which is required for tubule formation, is sufficient to trigger tubulogenesis in isolated metanephric mesenchyme, whereas Wnt-11 which is expressed in the tip of the growing ureter is not [29].
  • Furthermore, Grem1-mediated BMP antagonism is essential to induce metanephric kidney development as initiation of ureter growth, branching and establishment of RET/GDNF feedback signaling are disrupted in Grem1-deficient embryos [30].
  • We show here that, depending on the genetic background, most Foxc1 homozygous mutants are born with abnormalities of the metanephric kidney, including duplex kidneys and double ureters, one of which is a hydroureter [31].
  • 5. Only MT1-MMP and to a lesser extent MMP2 were detected in the ureter bud [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ureter


  1. Ureteral stenosis due to recurrent Wegener's granulomatosis after kidney transplantation. Rich, L.M., Piering, W.F. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Renal artery stenosis with normal angiotensin II values. Relationship between angiotensin II and body sodium and potassium on correction of hypertension by captopril and subsequent surgery. Atkinson, A.B., Brown, J.J., Davies, D.L., Leckie, B., Lever, A.F., Morton, J.J., Robertson, J.I. Hypertension (1981) [Pubmed]
  3. Characterization of Pax-2 regulatory sequences that direct transgene expression in the Wolffian duct and its derivatives. Kuschert, S., Rowitch, D.H., Haenig, B., McMahon, A.P., Kispert, A. Dev. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Gene transfer of Smad7 using electroporation of adenovirus prevents renal fibrosis in post-obstructed kidney. Terada, Y., Hanada, S., Nakao, A., Kuwahara, M., Sasaki, S., Marumo, F. Kidney Int. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Transrenal ureteral embolization. Günther, R., Marberger, M., Klose, K. Radiology. (1979) [Pubmed]
  6. Histochemical and functional evidence for a cholinergic innervation of the equine ureter. Prieto, D., Simonsen, U., Martín, J., Hernández, M., Rivera, L., Lema, L., García, P., García-Sacristán, A. J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. UT-B1 urea transporter is expressed along the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts of the mouse. Lucien, N., Bruneval, P., Lasbennes, F., Belair, M.F., Mandet, C., Cartron, J.P., Bailly, P., Trinh-Trang-Tan, M.M. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Apoptosis induced by vitamin A signaling is crucial for connecting the ureters to the bladder. Batourina, E., Tsai, S., Lambert, S., Sprenkle, P., Viana, R., Dutta, S., Hensle, T., Wang, F., Niederreither, K., McMahon, A.P., Carroll, T.J., Mendelsohn, C.L. Nat. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Distal ureter morphogenesis depends on epithelial cell remodeling mediated by vitamin A and Ret. Batourina, E., Choi, C., Paragas, N., Bello, N., Hensle, T., Costantini, F.D., Schuchardt, A., Bacallao, R.L., Mendelsohn, C.L. Nat. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Deregulation of Pax-2 expression in transgenic mice generates severe kidney abnormalities. Dressler, G.R., Wilkinson, J.E., Rothenpieler, U.W., Patterson, L.T., Williams-Simons, L., Westphal, H. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Tbx18 regulates the development of the ureteral mesenchyme. Airik, R., Bussen, M., Singh, M.K., Petry, M., Kispert, A. J. Clin. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Suppression of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase messenger RNA concentration, protein expression, and enzymatic activity during human ureteral obstruction. Jerde, T.J., Mellon, W.S., Fischer, S.M., Liebert, M., Bjorling, D.E., Nakada, S.Y. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Management of the choked ureter in obstructive renal failure due to uric acid lithiasis. Ansari, E.R., Kazim, E., Husain, I. J. Urol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Inhibition of human and pig ureter motility in vitro and in vivo by the K(+) channel openers PKF 217-744b and nicorandil. Weiss, R., Mevissen, M., Hauser, D.S., Scholtysik, G., Portier, C.J., Walter, B., Studer, U.E., Danuser, H. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Primary neoplasms of the ureter. Werth, D.D., Weigel, J.W., Mebust, W.K. J. Urol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  16. An assessment of the pulsed dye laser for fragmenting calculi in the pig ureter. Watson, G., Murray, S., Dretler, S.P., Parrish, J.A. J. Urol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Matrix metalloproteinases MMP2 and MMP9 are produced in early stages of kidney morphogenesis but only MMP9 is required for renal organogenesis in vitro. Lelongt, B., Trugnan, G., Murphy, G., Ronco, P.M. J. Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Inactivation of the retinoblastoma gene in human bladder and renal cell carcinomas. Ishikawa, J., Xu, H.J., Hu, S.X., Yandell, D.W., Maeda, S., Kamidono, S., Benedict, W.F., Takahashi, R. Cancer Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Murine homolog of SALL1 is essential for ureteric bud invasion in kidney development. Nishinakamura, R., Matsumoto, Y., Nakao, K., Nakamura, K., Sato, A., Copeland, N.G., Gilbert, D.J., Jenkins, N.A., Scully, S., Lacey, D.L., Katsuki, M., Asashima, M., Yokota, T. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Sonic hedgehog regulates proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal cells in the mouse metanephric kidney. Yu, J., Carroll, T.J., McMahon, A.P. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. The effect of glucocorticosteroids on in vitro motility of the ureter of the sheep. Angelo-Khattar, M., Thulesius, O., Cherian, T. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. Metabolic and cellular alterations underlying the exaggerated renal prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis in ureter obstruction in rabbits. Inflammatory response involving fibroblasts and mononuclear cells. Okegawa, T., Jonas, P.E., DeSchryver, K., Kawasaki, A., Needleman, P. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Proteoglycans are required for maintenance of Wnt-11 expression in the ureter tips. Kispert, A., Vainio, S., Shen, L., Rowitch, D.H., McMahon, A.P. Development (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Loss of NKX3.1 expression in human prostate cancers correlates with tumor progression. Bowen, C., Bubendorf, L., Voeller, H.J., Slack, R., Willi, N., Sauter, G., Gasser, T.C., Koivisto, P., Lack, E.E., Kononen, J., Kallioniemi, O.P., Gelmann, E.P. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Pax8, a murine paired box gene expressed in the developing excretory system and thyroid gland. Plachov, D., Chowdhury, K., Walther, C., Simon, D., Guenet, J.L., Gruss, P. Development (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. How they begin and how they end: classic and new theories for the development and deterioration of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, CAKUT. Pope, J.C., Brock, J.W., Adams, M.C., Stephens, F.D., Ichikawa, I. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Endoscopic correction of primary vesicoureteric reflux by subureteric injection of polytetrafluoroethylene. Puri, P. Lancet (1990) [Pubmed]
  28. The regulation of kidney development: new insights from an old model. Patterson, L.T., Dressler, G.R. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Wnt-4 is a mesenchymal signal for epithelial transformation of metanephric mesenchyme in the developing kidney. Kispert, A., Vainio, S., McMahon, A.P. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Gremlin-mediated BMP antagonism induces the epithelial-mesenchymal feedback signaling controlling metanephric kidney and limb organogenesis. Michos, O., Panman, L., Vintersten, K., Beier, K., Zeller, R., Zuniga, A. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Murine forkhead/winged helix genes Foxc1 (Mf1) and Foxc2 (Mfh1) are required for the early organogenesis of the kidney and urinary tract. Kume, T., Deng, K., Hogan, B.L. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Expression of the type IV collagenase system during mouse kidney development and tubule segmentation. Legallicier, B., Trugnan, G., Murphy, G., Lelongt, B., Ronco, P. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Mechanism of enhanced renal prostaglandin biosynthesis in ureter obstruction. Role of de novo protein synthesis. Morrison, A.R., Moritz, H., Needleman, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  34. Tubules are the major site of M-CSF production in experimental kidney disease: correlation with local macrophage proliferation. Isbel, N.M., Hill, P.A., Foti, R., Mu, W., Hurst, L.A., Stambe, C., Lan, H.Y., Atkins, R.C., Nikolic-Paterson, D.J. Kidney Int. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Placement of a wire mesh prosthesis in the external urinary sphincter of men with spinal cord injuries. Chancellor, M.B., Karusick, S., Erhard, M.J., Abdill, C.K., Liu, J.B., Goldberg, B.B., Staas, W.E. Radiology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  36. ACE inhibition increases expression of the ETB receptor in kidneys of mice with unilateral obstruction. Moridaira, K., Morrissey, J., Fitzgerald, M., Guo, G., McCracken, R., Tolley, T., Klahr, S. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. The whole-cell Ca2+ channel current in single smooth muscle cells of the guinea-pig ureter. Lang, R.J. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1990) [Pubmed]
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