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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Clinical features of neurotoxic snake bite and response to antivenom in 47 children.

Among 47 children admitted to the Chulalongkorn Medical School Hospital for neurotoxic snake bite, the attackers were identified in 15; the cobra (Naja naja) was the snake involved in all cases. Clinical manifestations in all 47 children appeared to follow a similar pattern. Drowsiness heralded the systemic effects in most of the patients. The characteristic systemic signs were those resulting from the neuromuscular effects of the venom and included ptosis, frothy saliva, slurred speech, respiratory failure, and paralysis of the skeletal muscles. These episodes occurred within 8 hours in 94% of the cases, and at the latest 19 hours following the bite. In some cases unconsciousness accompanied respiratory failure. Necrosis in the region of the bite, the prominent local sign, developed in 40% of the cases at the end of the 1st week after the bite. Infusion of specific antivenom was an effective therapeutic measure for the neuromuscular changes. Respiratory assistance was mandatory in cases of respiratory failure. Edrophonium chloride demonstrated a supportive role as a countermeasure against the neuromuscular effects.[1]


  1. Clinical features of neurotoxic snake bite and response to antivenom in 47 children. Mitrakul, C., Dhamkrong-At, A., Futrakul, P., Thisyakorn, C., Vongsrisart, K., Varavithya, C., Phancharoen, S. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1984) [Pubmed]
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