The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

Tensilon     ethyl-(3-hydroxyphenyl)- dimethyl-azanium

Synonyms: Reversol, Antirex, Edrophonum, Edroponium, Enlon, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of edrophonium


Psychiatry related information on edrophonium


High impact information on edrophonium

  • To study the ability of anticholinesterase drugs to reverse the potentially fatal paralytic effects of cobra venom, we conducted a placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial of intravenous edrophonium (Tensilon) in 10 adults with neurotoxic envenoming caused by bites of the Philippine cobra (Naja naja philippinensis) [1].
  • Positive response to edrophonium in patients with neurotoxic envenoming by cobras (Naja naja philippinensis). A placebo-controlled study [1].
  • The expiratory and inspiratory pressures, forced vital capacity, and ability to cough, speak, and swallow also improved after edrophonium [1].
  • The action of AChE was independent of the subunit array of the enzyme, was not affected by edrophonium, an active site inhibitor, but it was affected by propidium, a peripheral anionic binding site ligand [8].
  • SEC was observed in 5 subjects with a positive chest pain response to edrophonium and in none of the 5 subjects with a negative response [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of edrophonium


Biological context of edrophonium

  • After edrophonium all but 1 subject showed falls in heart rate of about 6 beats/min; there were no consistent blood pressure changes [14].
  • We measured the amplitudes and velocities of centrifugal saccades at the start of the task, after 3 minutes of the task (fatigue) and 1 minute after receiving IV edrophonium [15].
  • Electromyogram demonstrated repetitive compound muscle action potentials in response to a single stimulus of nerve; decremental response, more prominent at higher rates of stimulation; worsening of decremental response after edrophonium injection; and normal nerve conduction velocities [16].
  • In contrast, edrophonium, N-methylacridinium, and butyrylthiocholine bound to the acylation site and formed ternary complexes with the fasciculin 2-bound enzyme in which their affinities were reduced by about an order of magnitude from their affinities in the free enzyme [17].
  • Cerebral evoked potential recording was used to study the oesophagus-brain axis in 10 controls and 10 patients with non-cardiac chest pain with a manometric diagnosis of either nutcracker oesophagus or diffuse spasm and a positive edrophonium test [18].

Anatomical context of edrophonium

  • To improve our diagnostic yield, we studied the use of edrophonium as a provocative test for inducing esophageal chest pain in 50 symptomatic patients without coronary artery disease and in 25 age-matched controls [19].
  • Carotid sinus massage following pretreatment with edrophonium in unusually high (15-20 mg, i.v.) doses broke ventricular tachycardia in all four patients [20].
  • The esophagus was identified as "probably" contributing to chest pain only if the acid or edrophonium test was positive or if there was a positive correlation between symptoms and acid reflux during pH monitoring [11].
  • From these results and other published data, we suggest that the pain receptor for noxious stretch and after edrophonium challenge is likely to be an 'in series' mechanoreceptor located in oesophageal longitudinal muscle [21].
  • In contrast, larger doses of toxin produce an acute dysfunction of all extraocular muscle fiber types, which is responsive to edrophonium and consequently reflects partial blockade at the neuromuscular junction [22].

Associations of edrophonium with other chemical compounds


Gene context of edrophonium

  • Plasma G4 or G1 AChE did not differ in their affinity for edrophonium [26].
  • Secondary to edrophonium, diethylparaquat, paraquat, morfamquat and monoquat showed lower I50 for AChE, and possessed higher inhibition selectivity (IS), expressed as the ratio of I50 for BuChE to I50 for erythrocyte AChE [27].
  • For huperzine A and edrophonium, the results obtained with AChE mutants could be directly correlated with those obtained with native ChEs and site-specific mutants of human BChE [28].
  • In 2 subjects sampled for 140 min. maximum serum GH levels of 19.4 and 10.2 ng/ml (from baseline values of 0.4 and 0.6 ng/ml) occurred at 65 min after edrophonium injection [29].
  • Endogenous cholinergic stimulation, produced by the intravenous injection of edrophonium (10 mg), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, into 8 normal human subjects, resulted in an increase in the mean (+/- SE) serum growth hormone (GH) concentration from 0.6 +/- 0.1 ng/ml to 5.6 +/- 1.4 ng/ml (p < 0.01) at 40 min with no changes in serum prolactin [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of edrophonium


  1. Positive response to edrophonium in patients with neurotoxic envenoming by cobras (Naja naja philippinensis). A placebo-controlled study. Watt, G., Theakston, R.D., Hayes, C.G., Yambao, M.L., Sangalang, R., Ranoa, C.P., Alquizalas, E., Warrell, D.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Prospective manometric evaluation with pharmacologic provocation of patients with suspected esophageal motility dysfunction. Benjamin, S.B., Richter, J.E., Cordova, C.M., Knuff, T.E., Castell, D.O. Gastroenterology (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. Effect of acute hyperglycemia on esophageal motility and lower esophageal sphincter pressure in humans. De Boer, S.Y., Masclee, A.A., Lam, W.F., Lamers, C.B. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Studies on the mechanism of esophagitis-induced lower esophageal sphincter hypotension in cats. Higgs, R.H., Castell, D.O., Eastwood, G.L. Gastroenterology (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Clinical features of types A and B food-borne botulism. Hughes, J.M., Blumenthal, J.R., Merson, M.H., Lombard, G.L., Dowell, V.R., Gangarosa, E.J. Ann. Intern. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  6. Growth hormone response to edrophonium in Alzheimer's disease. Thienhaus, O.J., Zemlan, F.P., Bienenfeld, D., Hartford, J.T., Bosmann, H.B. The American journal of psychiatry. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Reversal of megaduodenum and duodenal dysmotility associated with improvement in nutritional status in primary anorexia nervosa. Buchman, A.L., Ament, M.E., Weiner, M., Kodner, A., Mayer, E.A. Dig. Dis. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Acetylcholinesterase accelerates assembly of amyloid-beta-peptides into Alzheimer's fibrils: possible role of the peripheral site of the enzyme. Inestrosa, N.C., Alvarez, A., Pérez, C.A., Moreno, R.D., Vicente, M., Linker, C., Casanueva, O.I., Soto, C., Garrido, J. Neuron (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Sustained esophageal contraction: a marker of esophageal chest pain identified by intraluminal ultrasonography. Balaban, D.H., Yamamoto, Y., Liu, J., Pehlivanov, N., Wisniewski, R., DeSilvey, D., Mittal, R.K. Gastroenterology (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Chest pain associated with mitral valve prolapse. Evidence for esophageal origin. Spears, P.F., Koch, K.L., Day, F.P. Arch. Intern. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Twenty-four-hour esophageal pH monitoring: the most useful test for evaluating noncardiac chest pain. Hewson, E.G., Sinclair, J.W., Dalton, C.B., Richter, J.E. Am. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Natural monomeric form of fetal bovine serum acetylcholinesterase lacks the C-terminal tetramerization domain. Saxena, A., Hur, R.S., Luo, C., Doctor, B.P. Biochemistry (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Cholinesterase inhibitors induce growth cone collapse and inhibit neurite extension in primary cultured chick neurons. Saito, S. Neurotoxicology and teratology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Noradrenaline response to edrophonium in primary autonomic failure: distinction between central and peripheral damage. Gemmill, J.D., Venables, G.S., Ewing, D.J. Lancet (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of edrophonium on saccadic velocity in normal subjects and myasthenic and nonmyasthenic ocular palsies. Barton, J.J., Huaman, A.G., Sharpe, J.A. Ann. Neurol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Edrophonium: an aid in the diagnosis of acute organophosphate poisoning. Maselli, R., Jacobsen, J.H., Spire, J.P. Ann. Neurol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Fasciculin 2 binds to the peripheral site on acetylcholinesterase and inhibits substrate hydrolysis by slowing a step involving proton transfer during enzyme acylation. Eastman, J., Wilson, E.J., Cerveñansky, C., Rosenberry, T.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Cerebral potentials evoked by oesophageal distension in patients with non-cardiac chest pain. Smout, A.J., DeVore, M.S., Dalton, C.B., Castell, D.O. Gut (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Edrophonium: a useful provocative test for esophageal chest pain. Richter, J.E., Hackshaw, B.T., Wu, W.C., Castell, D.O. Ann. Intern. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Termination of ventricular tachycardia by an increase in cardiac vagal drive. Waxman, M.B., Wald, R.W. Circulation (1977) [Pubmed]
  21. Site and mechanism of pain perception with oesophageal balloon distension and intravenous edrophonium in patients with oesophageal chest pain. de Caestecker, J.S., Pryde, A., Heading, R.C. Gut (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Clinical evidence of extraocular muscle fiber-type specificity of botulinum toxin. Stahl, J.S., Averbuch-Heller, L., Remler, B.F., Leigh, R.J. Neurology (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Diagnostic value of esophageal studies in patients with angina-like chest pain and normal coronary angiograms. Frøbert, O., Funch-Jensen, P., Bagger, J.P. Ann. Intern. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Quaternary ligand binding to aromatic residues in the active-site gorge of acetylcholinesterase. Harel, M., Schalk, I., Ehret-Sabatier, L., Bouet, F., Goeldner, M., Hirth, C., Axelsen, P.H., Silman, I., Sussman, J.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Thioflavin T is a fluorescent probe of the acetylcholinesterase peripheral site that reveals conformational interactions between the peripheral and acylation sites. De Ferrari, G.V., Mallender, W.D., Inestrosa, N.C., Rosenberry, T.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Amphiphilic properties of acetylcholinesterase monomers in mouse plasma. García-Ayllón, M.S., Gómez, J.L., Vidal, C.J. Neurosci. Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Structure-activity relationship of reversible cholinesterase inhibitors including paraquat. Seto, Y., Shinohara, T. Arch. Toxicol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  28. Differences in active-site gorge dimensions of cholinesterases revealed by binding of inhibitors to human butyrylcholinesterase. Saxena, A., Redman, A.M., Jiang, X., Lockridge, O., Doctor, B.P. Chem. Biol. Interact. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Endogenous cholinergic modulation of growth-hormone secretion in normal and acromegalic humans. Leveston, S.A., Cryer, P.E. Metab. Clin. Exp. (1980) [Pubmed]
  30. Analysis of 24-hour esophageal pressure and pH data in unselected patients with noncardiac chest pain. Breumelhof, R., Nadorp, J.H., Akkermans, L.M., Smout, A.J. Gastroenterology (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation induced with vagal activity in patients without obvious heart disease. Kasanuki, H., Ohnishi, S., Ohtuka, M., Matsuda, N., Nirei, T., Isogai, R., Shoda, M., Toyoshima, Y., Hosoda, S. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Comparison of intravenous edrophonium and oesophageal acid perfusion during oesophageal manometry in patients with non-cardiac chest pain. De Caestecker, J.S., Pryde, A., Heading, R.C. Gut (1988) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities