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MeSH Review

Snake Bites

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Disease relevance of Snake Bites


High impact information on Snake Bites

  • Envenomations due to snake bites are commonly treated by parenteral administration of horse or sheep-derived polyclonal antivenoms aimed at the neutralization of toxins [4].
  • These observations demonstrate the possible importance of TNF-alpha in the development of the resulting necrotic lesion and leads to the hypothesis that increased levels of venom metalloproteinases following snake bite release active TNF-alpha [5].
  • Since venoms of viper snakes are a rich source of both serine- and metalloproteinase, we hypothesized that angiostatin-like polypeptides could be generated during the envenomation after snake bites and play a pathophysiological role in the local tissue damage and regeneration [6].
  • OBJECTIVES: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been reported as a mediator of local tissue injury following snake envenomation in an intact rat model [7].
  • Recurrence phenomena after immunoglobulin therapy for snake envenomations: Part 2. Guidelines for clinical management with crotaline Fab antivenom [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Snake Bites


Anatomical context of Snake Bites

  • PLA2 is thought to be toxic to cell membrane, thereby, can cause local cell and tissue damage, as well as systemic effects in snake bite victims [14].

Gene context of Snake Bites

  • The non-obstetric causes included snake bite in 26 (12%), acute gastro-enteritis in 5 (10%), haemolytic uremic syndrome in 2 (4%) and G6PD deficiency with intravascular haemolysis in one patient (2%) [15].
  • Species diagnosis is important because only monospecific antivenoms are available for treatment in Thailand. We tested the ability of the ELISA technique to detect venom antigen in the sera of 58 acute snake bite cases including 4 fatalities, and venom antibody in 51 patients bitten between 1 month and 19 years previously [16].
  • The implications of these new groups of PLA2 toxin inhibitors in the context of our current understanding of snake biology as well as in the development of novel therapeutic reagents in the treatment of snake envenomations worldwide are discussed [17].
  • The majority of snake bites (63%) occurred at night (between 6.30 p.m. and midnight) and over 74% took place during the hot rainy season, i.e. between November and April [18].
  • Paris formosana Hayata (Liliaceae) grown in the mountain areas of Taiwan, has been used as a folk remedy for snake bite, and as an anti-inflammatory or anti-neoplastic agent [19].


  1. Low dose of snake antivenom is as effective as high dose in patients with severe neurotoxic snake envenoming. Agarwal, R., Aggarwal, A.N., Gupta, D., Behera, D., Jindal, S.K. Emergency medicine journal : EMJ. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Acute renal failure secondary to rhabdomyolysis. MR imaging of the kidney. Kim, S.H., Han, M.C., Kim, S., Lee, J.S. Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987) (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Sequential randomised and double blind trial of promethazine prophylaxis against early anaphylactic reactions to antivenom for bothrops snake bites. Fan, H.W., Marcopito, L.F., Cardoso, J.L., França, F.O., Malaque, C.M., Ferrari, R.A., Theakston, R.D., Warrell, D.A. BMJ (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Medicinal plants with inhibitory properties against snake venoms. Soares, A.M., Ticli, F.K., Marcussi, S., Lourenço, M.V., Januário, A.H., Sampaio, S.V., Giglio, J.R., Lomonte, B., Pereira, P.S. Current medicinal chemistry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Processing of pro-tumor necrosis factor-alpha by venom metalloproteinases: a hypothesis explaining local tissue damage following snake bite. Moura-da-Silva, A.M., Laing, G.D., Paine, M.J., Dennison, J.M., Politi, V., Crampton, J.M., Theakston, R.D. Eur. J. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Angiostatin-like molecules are generated by snake venom metalloproteinases. Ho, P.L., Serrano, S.M., Chudzinski-Tavassi, A.M., Moura da Silva, A.M., Mentele, R., Caldas, C., Oliva, M.L., Batista, I.F., Oliveira, M.L. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Antagonization of TNF attenuates systemic hemodynamic manifestations of envenomation in a rat model of Vipera aspis snakebite. Szold, O., Ben-Abraham, R., Weinbroum, A.A., Englender, T.E., Ovadia, D., Sorkine, M., Bon, C., Flaison, R., Sorkine, P. Intensive care medicine. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Recurrence phenomena after immunoglobulin therapy for snake envenomations: Part 2. Guidelines for clinical management with crotaline Fab antivenom. Boyer, L.V., Seifert, S.A., Cain, J.S. Annals of emergency medicine. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Clinical features of neurotoxic snake bite and response to antivenom in 47 children. Mitrakul, C., Dhamkrong-At, A., Futrakul, P., Thisyakorn, C., Vongsrisart, K., Varavithya, C., Phancharoen, S. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Use of neostigmine after snake bite. Brophy, T., Sutherland, S.K. British journal of anaesthesia. (1979) [Pubmed]
  11. Inhibition of toxic activities of Bothrops asper venom and other crotalid snake venoms by a novel neutralizing mixture. Borkow, G., Gutierrez, J.M., Ovadia, M. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. An unusual snake bite story. Gaynor, B. Med. J. Aust. (1977) [Pubmed]
  13. Decreased serum cholesterol level after snake bite (Vipera palaestinae) as a marker of severity of envenomation. Winkler, E., Chovers, M., Almog, S., Pri-Chen, S., Rotenberg, M., Tirosh, M., Ezra, D., Halkin, H. J. Lab. Clin. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Molecular cloning of phospholipase A2 from a Thai Russell's viper venom gland cDNA library. Nuchprayoon, I., Sai-Ngam, A., Suntrarachun, S., Noiphrom, J., Pakmanee, N., Chanhome, L., Nuchprayoon, S., Sitprija, V. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Spectrum of acute cortical necrosis in Indian patients. Chugh, K.S., Singhal, P.C., Kher, V.K., Gupta, V.K., Malik, G.H., Narayan, G., Datta, B.N. Am. J. Med. Sci. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. ELISA confirmation of acute and past envenoming by the monocellate Thai cobra (Naja kaouthia). Viravan, C., Veeravat, U., Warrell, M.J., Theakston, R.D., Warrell, D.A. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Natural phospholipase A(2) myotoxin inhibitor proteins from snakes, mammals and plants. Lizano, S., Domont, G., Perales, J. Toxicon (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Snake poisoning in rural Zimbabwe--a prospective study. Nhachi, C.F., Kasilo, O.M. Journal of applied toxicology : JAT. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Formosanin-C, an immunomodulator with antitumor activity. Wu, R.T., Chiang, H.C., Fu, W.C., Chien, K.Y., Chung, Y.M., Horng, L.Y. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
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