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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Sonography of the breast: findings following conservative surgery and irradiation for early carcinoma.

A dedicated-waterpath ultrasound breast scanner was used to examine 25 patients who had early breast carcinomas that were treated with conservative surgery (lumpectomy, tylectomy) and irradiation. Sonographic findings following such therapy included asymmetry in breast size, skin deformity and thickening, nipple retraction and/or distortion, and thickening of the Cooper ligaments. Disruption of the central echogenic cone of fibroglandular tissue, and general architectural distortion and internal asymmetry when the breasts were compared were also present in a large percentage of patients. The single case of recurrent carcinoma revealed only enlargement of the treated breast when the breasts were compared; no other pertinent sonographic findings were evident. The significance of sonography in the evaluation of the breast after conservative therapy for carcinoma remains to be determined. However, many of the sonographic findings in this group of patients are similar to those of the secondary signs of carcinoma. Knowledge of the sonographic changes of the conservatively treated breast therefore assumes importance for the sonographer.[1]


  1. Sonography of the breast: findings following conservative surgery and irradiation for early carcinoma. Grant, E.G., Richardson, J.D., Cigtay, O.S., Dritschilo, A., Lee, T.C. Radiology. (1983) [Pubmed]
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