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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Ligaments


High impact information on Ligaments

  • ECM from ligaments of fetal calves younger than the time when elastin production occurs spontaneously in situ (i.e., beginning the last developmental trimester at approximately 180 d of gestation) does not stimulate elastin production in undifferentiated cells [6].
  • Eya1 expression is largely restricted to flexor tendons, while Eya2 is expressed in the extensor tendons and ligaments of the phalangeal elements of the limb [7].
  • Our findings indicate that Msx2 plays a central role in preventing ligaments and tendons from mineralizing [8].
  • Massive amyloid deposits were found in the synovium, capsule, ligaments, articular cartilage, and/or bone [9].
  • Functional implications of the unusual spatial distribution of a minor alpha-tubulin isotype in Drosophila: a common thread among chordotonal ligaments, developing muscle, and testis cyst cells [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Ligaments

  • BACKGROUND: Trevira (polyethylene terephthalate) has been in clinical use for more than 20 years, serving as implant material with minimal foreign body reaction for the replacement of the cruciate ligaments of the knee [11].
  • In contrast, distracted coronal sutures from rabbits with delayed-onset synostosis showed narrowed sutural ligaments, thickened and blunt osteogenic fronts, and increased collagen and bony matrix deposition compared with controls [12].
  • METHODS: Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 expression, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2 expression and hydroxyproline content were measured in the uterosacral ligaments and vaginal tissue from 14 women with prolapse compared with 14 controls [13].
  • Volar intercalated segment instability as a result of spontaneous rupture of the supporting ligaments of the wrist due to longterm systemic steroid medication [14].
  • Effect of perioperative oral carprofen on postoperative pain in dogs undergoing surgery for stabilization of ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments [15].

Biological context of Ligaments

  • It is clear that some cells from ligaments with OPLL had several phenotypes characteristic of osteoblasts, but cells from ligaments without ossification did not show any osteoblastic properties [16].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The clearly discernible levels of expression of ERalpha, ERbeta, AR and PR in the prolapsed cardinal ligaments may suggest a relationship to the process of tissue stretch 'trauma', rather than an effect of the menopausal status, HRT use or cell proliferation [17].
  • A model of the knee in the sagittal plane was developed to study the forces in the ligaments induced by isometric contractions of the extensor and flexor muscles [18].
  • Relaxin (Rlx), a hormone involved in loosening collagen bundles in ligaments during parturition, has antifibrotic and vasodilator properties that may prevent pulmonary vascular remodeling [19].
  • The fibers of the ulnar part of the radioulnar ligaments (ulnar attachment of the articular disc) revealed the most significant changes: their orientation was coronal in the neutral position and sagittal in positions of pronation and supination [20].

Anatomical context of Ligaments


Associations of Ligaments with chemical compounds

  • Palmar, dorsal, and central segments of both ligaments were analyzed on transverse and coronal MR images and multiplanar multi-detector row CT reconstructions by two musculoskeletal radiologists working independently [26].
  • In a corresponding fashion, when the collagenase levels of these ligaments were measured progesterone treatment was shown to inhibit collagenase activity markedly while estrogen was less effective [27].
  • Removal and culture of post-partum ligaments, which undergo a 75% reduction in length and hydroxyproline content by the fifth post-partum day, allowed the demonstration of high collagenase levels released into the media [27].
  • Sonographic findings following such therapy included asymmetry in breast size, skin deformity and thickening, nipple retraction and/or distortion, and thickening of the Cooper ligaments [28].
  • Gadolinium enhancement improved the delineation of normal and abnormal ligaments on T1-weighted images in each case [29].

Gene context of Ligaments

  • Despite the abnormalities in collagen fibrillogenesis, fragility of skin, and laxity of tendons and ligaments observed in the TSP2-null mouse, TSP2 does not appear to contribute directly to the structural integrity of connective tissue elements [30].
  • Moreover, INSL4 mRNA was abundant in interbone ligaments [31].
  • Conversely, the cruciate ligaments of the knee showed both an increase in LUM content and considerable structural abnormalities including the tendency towards rupture [32].
  • Semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed for collagen types I, III, and V; matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13); and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 for both injured and uninjured knee ligaments at 6 and 12 weeks after injury [33].
  • To elucidate the process of ossification in spinal ligaments, an aqueous solution containing recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 (40 micrograms/100 microL) was injected into murine ligamenta flava, and the ossification process was analyzed morphologically [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ligaments


  1. Mutation in Npps in a mouse model of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine. Okawa, A., Nakamura, I., Goto, S., Moriya, H., Nakamura, Y., Ikegawa, S. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Decrease in serum nucleotide pyrophosphatase activity in ankylosing spondylitis. Mori, K., Chano, T., Ikeda, T., Ikegawa, S., Matsusue, Y., Okabe, H., Saeki, Y. Rheumatology (Oxford, England) (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Testicular position in the androgen insensitivity syndrome: implications for the role of androgens in testicular descent. Barthold, J.S., Kumasi-Rivers, K., Upadhyay, J., Shekarriz, B., Imperato-Mcginley, J. J. Urol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Changes in extracellular matrix proteins in the cardinal ligaments of post-menopausal women with or without prolapse: a computerized immunohistomorphometric analysis. Ewies, A.A., Al-Azzawi, F., Thompson, J. Hum. Reprod. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Laparoscopic treatment of infiltrative rectosigmoid colon and rectovaginal septum endometriosis by the technique of videolaparoscopy and the CO2 laser. Nezhat, C., Nezhat, F., Pennington, E. British journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Extracellular matrix-specific induction of elastogenic differentiation and maintenance of phenotypic stability in bovine ligament fibroblasts. Mecham, R.P., Madaras, J.G., Senior, R.M. J. Cell Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Mouse Eya genes are expressed during limb tendon development and encode a transcriptional activation function. Xu, P.X., Cheng, J., Epstein, J.A., Maas, R.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Homeobox protein MSX2 acts as a molecular defense mechanism for preventing ossification in ligament fibroblasts. Yoshizawa, T., Takizawa, F., Iizawa, F., Ishibashi, O., Kawashima, H., Matsuda, A., Endo, N., Kawashima, H. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Hemodialysis-associated amyloidosis and beta-2 microglobulin. Clinical and immunohistochemical study. Bardin, T., Zingraff, J., Shirahama, T., Noel, L.H., Droz, D., Voisin, M.C., Drueke, T., Dryll, A., Skinner, M., Cohen, A.S. Am. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Functional implications of the unusual spatial distribution of a minor alpha-tubulin isotype in Drosophila: a common thread among chordotonal ligaments, developing muscle, and testis cyst cells. Matthews, K.A., Miller, D.F., Kaufman, T.C. Dev. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Trevira mesh: a promising new implant for the treatment of abdominal hernias. Zieren, J., Maecker, F., Neuss, H., Müller, J.M. Langenbeck's archives of surgery / Deutsche Gesellschaft für Chirurgie. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Coronal suture response to distraction osteogenesis in rabbits with delayed-onset craniosynostosis. Losken, H.W., Mooney, M.P., Zoldos, J., Tschakaloff, A., Burrows, A.M., Smith, T.D., Cano, G., Arnott, R., Sherwood, C., Dechant, J., Cooper, G.M., Kapucu, M.R., Siegel, M.I. The Journal of craniofacial surgery. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Collagen metabolism in the uterosacral ligaments and vaginal skin of women with uterine prolapse. Phillips, C.H., Anthony, F., Benyon, C., Monga, A.K. BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Volar intercalated segment instability as a result of spontaneous rupture of the supporting ligaments of the wrist due to longterm systemic steroid medication. Bell, M.J., McMurtry, R.Y. Journal of hand surgery (Edinburgh, Lothian) (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Effect of perioperative oral carprofen on postoperative pain in dogs undergoing surgery for stabilization of ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments. Gaynor, J.S., Brevard, S., Mallinckrodt, C., Baker, G., Wander, K. Vet. Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Characterization of cultured cells derived from ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine. Ishida, Y., Kawai, S. Bone (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Changes in gonadal steroid receptors in the cardinal ligaments of prolapsed uteri: immunohistomorphometric data. Ewies, A.A., Thompson, J., Al-Azzawi, F. Hum. Reprod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. A musculoskeletal model of the knee for evaluating ligament forces during isometric contractions. Shelburne, K.B., Pandy, M.G. Journal of biomechanics. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Recombinant human relaxin reduces hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in the rat. Tozzi, C.A., Poiani, G.J., McHugh, N.A., Sharkarjian, M.P., Grove, B.H., Samuel, C.S., Unemori, E.N., Riley, D.J. Pulmonary pharmacology & therapeutics. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. What happens to the triangular fibrocartilage complex during pronation and supination of the forearm? Analysis of its morphology and diagnostic assessment with MR arthrography. Pfirrmann, C.W., Theumann, N.H., Chung, C.B., Botte, M.J., Trudell, D.J., Resnick, D. Skeletal radiology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. MT1-MMP: a tethered collagenase. Holmbeck, K., Bianco, P., Yamada, S., Birkedal-Hansen, H. J. Cell. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. MR morphology of alar ligaments and occipitoatlantoaxial joints: study in 50 asymptomatic subjects. Pfirrmann, C.W., Binkert, C.A., Zanetti, M., Boos, N., Hodler, J. Radiology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Fibroblasts of spinal ligaments pathologically differentiate into chondrocytes induced by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2: morphological examinations for ossification of spinal ligaments. Hoshi, K., Amizuka, N., Sakou, T., Kurokawa, T., Ozawa, H. Bone (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Differential expression of thrombospondin 1, 2, and 3 during murine development. Iruela-Arispe, M.L., Liska, D.J., Sage, E.H., Bornstein, P. Dev. Dyn. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. 4-Defect repair of grade 4 cystocele. Safir, M.H., Gousse, A.E., Rovner, E.S., Ginsberg, D.A., Raz, S. J. Urol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Interosseous ligament tears of the wrist: comparison of multi-detector row CT arthrography and MR imaging. Schmid, M.R., Schertler, T., Pfirrmann, C.W., Saupe, N., Manestar, M., Wildermuth, S., Weishaupt, D. Radiology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Effect of hormones on collagen metabolism and collagenase activity in the pubic symphysis ligament of the guinea pig. Wahl, L.M., Blandau, R.J., Page, R.C. Endocrinology (1977) [Pubmed]
  28. Sonography of the breast: findings following conservative surgery and irradiation for early carcinoma. Grant, E.G., Richardson, J.D., Cigtay, O.S., Dritschilo, A., Lee, T.C. Radiology. (1983) [Pubmed]
  29. Collateral ligaments of the elbow: conventional MR imaging and MR arthrography with coronal oblique plane and elbow flexion. Cotten, A., Jacobson, J., Brossmann, J., Pedowitz, R., Haghighi, P., Trudell, D., Resnick, D. Radiology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Thrombospondin 2, a matricellular protein with diverse functions. Bornstein, P., Armstrong, L.C., Hankenson, K.D., Kyriakides, T.R., Yang, Z. Matrix Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Insulin-like 4 (INSL4) gene expression in human embryonic and trophoblastic tissues. Laurent, A., Rouillac, C., Delezoide, A.L., Giovangrandi, Y., Vekemans, M., Bellet, D., Abitbol, M., Vidaud, M. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Fibromodulin-null murine knee joints display increased incidences of osteoarthritis and alterations in tissue biochemistry. Gill, M.R., Oldberg, A., Reinholt, F.P. Osteoarthr. Cartil. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Medial collateral ligament and partial anterior cruciate ligament transection: mRNA changes in uninjured ligaments of the sheep knee. Lo, I.K., Marchuk, L., Majima, T., Frank, C.B., Hart, D.A. Journal of orthopaedic science : official journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Increased expression of the beta 1, alpha 5, and alpha v integrin adhesion receptor subunits occurs coincident with remodeling of stress-deprived rabbit anterior cruciate and medial collateral ligaments. AbiEzzi, S.S., Gesink, D.S., Schreck, P.J., Amiel, D., Akeson, W.H., Woods, V.L. J. Orthop. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  35. Synovial fluid nutrient delivery in the diathrial joint: an analysis of rabbit knee ligaments. Amiel, D., Abel, M.F., Kleiner, J.B., Lieber, R.L., Akeson, W.H. J. Orthop. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  36. Turnover of collagen in the adult rat after denervation. Klein, L., Dawson, M.H., Heiple, K.G. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume. (1977) [Pubmed]
  37. Microendoscopic decompressive laminotomy for the treatment of lumbar stenosis. Khoo, L.T., Fessler, R.G. Neurosurgery (2002) [Pubmed]
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