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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Characterization of some glycolytic enzymes from human retina and retinoblastoma.

GLycolytic enzymes were studied from normal human retinas (both fetal and adult) and from retinoblastomas of eight patients and an established retinoblastoma cell line. No significant differences were found between the enzyme activities in the tissues investigated except for hexokinase and pyruvate kinase, which were significantly decreased in the tumor cells. In fetal retina, five different forms of pyruvate kinase could be detected by electrophoresis (K4, K3M, K2M2, KM3, and M4). In adult retina the K4 isozyme is almost absent, while in retinoblastoma the M4 isozyme is hardly present. In the retinoblastoma cell line, the M4 isozyme is completely absent. Alanine inhibition of pyruvate kinase from the retinoblastoma cell line is more inhibited compared to the pyruvate kinase of fetal retina and retinoblastoma and is even more inhibited compared to adult retina. Electrophoresis of aldolase from adult retina revealed the presence of all potential A-C hybrids (A4, A3C, A2C2, AC3, and C4). Fetal retina, however, is characterized by the predominance of the A type. The same patterns were observed in the retinoblastoma cell line and retinoblastoma. However, in other brain tumors, e.g., gliomas of adults, a five-membered A-C hybrid set is found. Electrophoresis of hexokinase from normal fetal and adult retina revealed the predominance of hexokinase type I; retinoblastoma and retinoblastoma cell line are both characterized by the presence of considerable amounts of hexokinase type II. The isozyme shifts in retinoblastoma result in an enzyme pattern identical to that of fetal retina except for the presence of hexokinase type II.[1]


  1. Characterization of some glycolytic enzymes from human retina and retinoblastoma. Beemer, F.A., Vlug, A.M., Rijksen, G., Hamburg, A., Staal, G.E. Cancer Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
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