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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Resistance pattern of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase to quinoxaline S-2720.

The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor quinoxaline S-2720 showed a more-potent inhibitory effect on HIV-1-induced cytopathicity in CEM cells than either nevirapine, pyridinone L-697,661, bis-heteroarylpiperazine (BHAP) U-88204, TSAO ([2',5'-bis-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-beta-D-ribofuranosyl]-3'-spiro-5 "- (4-amino-1",2"-oxathiole-2",2"-dioxide)-N3-ethylthymine, or 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-5-methylimidazo[4,5,1-jk][1,4-benzodiazepin-2(I H)-one (TIBO) R82913. The quinoxaline derivative was also markedly more inhibitory to the mutant HIV-1 strains containing in their RT Ile-100, Asn-103, Ala-106, Lys-138, Cys-181, or His-188 substitutions than were the other HIV-1-specific RT inhibitors. Moreover, quinoxaline S-2720 totally prevented HIV-1 infection and emergence of drug-resistant mutant virus strains in CEM cell cultures at concentrations (i.e., 0.35 microM) that are 10- to 25-fold lower than those required for BHAP U-88204 and nevirapine to knock out the virus. Also, the concentration-response curve for S-2720 was markedly steeper than for BHAP and nevirapine, as reflected by the ratio of the 95% to the 50% antivirally effective concentration. Lower concentrations of quinoxaline dominantly lead to the appearance of the Ala-106 RT mutation, causing low-level resistance to the compound. At higher quinoxaline concentrations, the Glu-190 RT and/or the Cys-181 RT mutation is added to the Ala-106 mutation, whereas at the highest quinoxaline concentrations, the Ala-106 mutation tends to disappear from the virus pool, leaving the Glu-190 RT and Cys-181 RT mutations as the only mutations conferring high-level resistance to the compound.[1]


  1. Resistance pattern of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase to quinoxaline S-2720. Balzarini, J., Karlsson, A., Meichsner, C., Paessens, A., Riess, G., De Clercq, E., Kleim, J.P. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
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