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Chemical Compound Review

CHEMBL268871     3-[(4,7-dichlorobenzooxazol- 2...

Synonyms: SureCN599639, AG-D-72627, ACMC-20mvsm, CHEBI:104344, CTK0H5173, ...
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Disease relevance of Pyridinone


High impact information on Pyridinone

  • Patients who received L-697,661 had rapid, dose-related decreases in plasma p24 antigen levels [1].
  • Transient increases in CD4 counts were noted in the patients with fewer than 200 CD4 cells per cubic millimeter who received the two higher doses of L-697,661, but not in those who received the lowest dose or zidovudine [1].
  • This change in susceptibility was more frequent among patients receiving the higher doses of L-697,661 and was associated with amino acid substitutions at positions 103 and 181 in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase gene [1].
  • We evaluated a pyridinone non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, L-697,661, in separate six-week double-blind trials in patients with HIV-1 infection whose CD4 counts ranged from 200 to 500 cells per cubic millimeter (68 patients) or less than 200 cells per cubic millimeter (67 patients) [1].
  • It lost its sensitivity to the TSAO nucleosides but not to the other HIV-1-specific RT inhibitors (i.e., TIBO and pyridinone) [6].

Chemical compound and disease context of Pyridinone

  • This quinazolinone binds to RT at a site that overlaps the binding site of other nonnucleoside inhibitors as evidenced by the ability of L-738,372 to displace bound radiolabeled L-696,229, a member of the pyridinone class of inhibitors of HIV-1 RT, from complexes of RT and primer-template [7].
  • Combined therapy with zidovudine and L-697,661 in primary HIV infection [8].
  • To test the concept that HIV reverse transcriptase could be effectively inhibited by "mixed site inhibitors", a series of seven conjugates containing both a nucleoside analogue component (AZT 1, ddC 2) and a nonnucleoside type inhibitor (HEPT analogue 12, pyridinone 27) were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to block HIV replication [9].

Biological context of Pyridinone

  • The inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase by pyridinone compounds has been investigated using as templates synthetic RNA with sequences based on the HIV-1 genome sequence [10].
  • These acids were examined for their ability to inhibit the rat passive cutaneous anaphylaxis; the pyridinone carboxylic acids 6 displayed a higher degree of iv and ip anaphylactic activities than their pyranone analogues 5 [11].
  • The 3D-QSAR models derived will be used to guide the design of pyridinone derivatives active against mutant strains of reverse transcriptase [12].
  • This methodology was applied to an expedient synthesis of (-)-barrenazine A and B. After N-functionalization and 1,4-reduction of the pyridinone system, the corresponding alpha-amino piperidinones readily undergo dimerization to give the hexahydrodipyridinopyrazine skeleton of the barrenazine alkaloids [13].
  • Inhibition by nevirapine gave IC50 values of 0.15, 0.23 and 0.72 microM; by 9-Cl-TIBO of 0.20, 2.50 and 10.3 microM; by L-697,661 of 0.064, 0.28 and 0.60 microM; by ddGTP of 0.13, 0.14 and 0.02 microM; by PFA of 17.0, 48.0 and 15.0 microM for RT wt, RT (Arg-138) and RT (His-188), respectively [14].

Anatomical context of Pyridinone


Associations of Pyridinone with other chemical compounds

  • Further comparison of the 3'-CN-substituted benzoylpyridinone compound 18c, and the corresponding 3'-acrylonitrile-substituted analogue 30, to efavirenz, the reference molecule in anti-HIV therapy today, revealed that the pyridinone analogues displayed a superior inhibition profile in the in vitro cellular assay system [16].
  • In our previous work we solved several X-ray structures of human alpha-thrombin in complexes with (1) novel bicyclic arginine mimetics attached to the glycylproline amide and pyridinone acetamide scaffold and (2) inhibitors with a novel aza scaffold and with charged or neutral P1 moieties [17].

Gene context of Pyridinone


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pyridinone

  • Viral isolates were obtained from a subgroup of patients before and after treatment and were evaluated for in vitro sensitivity to L-697,661 [1].
  • As one approach to define the mechanism of action of pyridinone inhibitors, we isolated resistant mutants of HIV-1 in cell culture [19].
  • Whereas viral load decreases seen with zidovudine were sustained for the duration of treatment, plasma viral markers often returned to pretreatment levels despite ongoing L-697,661 treatment, with evidence of the emergence of drug-resistant virus [20].


  1. A short-term clinical evaluation of L-697,661, a non-nucleoside inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. L-697,661 Working Group. Saag, M.S., Emini, E.A., Laskin, O.L., Douglas, J., Lapidus, W.I., Schleif, W.A., Whitley, R.J., Hildebrand, C., Byrnes, V.W., Kappes, J.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Pyridinone derivatives: specific human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors with antiviral activity. Goldman, M.E., Nunberg, J.H., O'Brien, J.A., Quintero, J.C., Schleif, W.A., Freund, K.F., Gaul, S.L., Saari, W.S., Wai, J.S., Hoffman, J.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Plasma viremia as a sensitive indicator of the antiretroviral activity of L-697,661. Davey, R.T., Dewar, R.L., Reed, G.F., Vasudevachari, M.B., Polis, M.A., Kovacs, J.A., Falloon, J., Walker, R.E., Masur, H., Haneiwich, S.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Possible toxicity associated with L-697,661 administration in a patient with AIDS. Harris, P.J. AIDS (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Anti-HIV michellamines from Ancistrocladus korupensis. Boyd, M.R., Hallock, Y.F., Cardellina, J.H., Manfredi, K.P., Blunt, J.W., McMahon, J.B., Buckheit, R.W., Bringmann, G., Schäffer, M., Cragg, G.M. J. Med. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains selected for resistance against the HIV-1-specific [2',5'-bis-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-3'-spiro- 5''-(4''-amino-1'',2''-oxathiole-2'',2''-dioxide)]-beta-D-pentofurano syl (TSAO) nucleoside analogues retain sensitivity to HIV-1-specific nonnucleoside inhibitors. Balzarini, J., Karlsson, A., Vandamme, A.M., Pérez-Pérez, M.J., Zhang, H., Vrang, L., Oberg, B., Bäckbro, K., Unge, T., San-Félix, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase by a quinazolinone and comparison with inhibition by pyridinones. Differences in the rates of inhibitor binding and in synergistic inhibition with nucleoside analogs. Carroll, S.S., Stahlhut, M., Geib, J., Olsen, D.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Combined therapy with zidovudine and L-697,661 in primary HIV infection. Perrin, L., Rakik, A., Yerly, S., Baumberger, C., Kinloch-de Loës, S., Pechère, M., Hirschel, B. AIDS (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Synthesis and evaluation of "AZT-HEPT", "AZT-pyridinone", and "ddC-HEPT" conjugates as inhibitors of HIV reverse transcriptase. Pontikis, R., Dollé, V., Guillaumel, J., Dechaux, E., Note, R., Nguyen, C.H., Legraverend, M., Bisagni, E., Aubertin, A.M., Grierson, D.S., Monneret, C. J. Med. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase by pyridinone derivatives. Potency, binding characteristics, and effect of template sequence. Carroll, S.S., Olsen, D.B., Bennett, C.D., Gotlib, L., Graham, D.J., Condra, J.H., Stern, A.M., Shafer, J.A., Kuo, L.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Synthesis and antiallergic properties of some 4H,5H-pyrano[3,2-c][1]benzopyran-4-one, 4H,5H-[1]benzothiopyrano[4,3-b]pyran-4-one, and 1,4-dihydro-5h-[1]benzothiopyrano[4,3-b]pyridin-4-one derivatives. Philipp, A., Jirkovsky, I., Martel, R.R. J. Med. Chem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  12. Docking-based CoMFA and CoMSIA studies of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors of the pyridinone derivative type. Medina-Franco, J.L., Rodríguez-Morales, S., Juárez-Gordiano, C., Hernández-Campos, A., Castillo, R. J. Comput. Aided Mol. Des. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Stereoselective synthesis of pyridinones: application to the synthesis of (-)-barrenazines. Focken, T., Charette, A.B. Org. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Enzymatic properties and sensitivity to inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase with Glu-138-->Arg and Tyr-188-->His mutations. Zhang, H., Vrang, L., Bäckbro, K., Unge, T., Noréen, R., Oberg, B. Antiviral Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Chelation and determination of labile iron in primary hepatocytes by pyridinone fluorescent probes. Ma, Y., de Groot, H., Liu, Z., Hider, R.C., Petrat, F. Biochem. J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. 4-benzyl- and 4-benzoyl-3-dimethylaminopyridin-2(1H)-ones, a new family of potent anti-HIV agents: optimization and in vitro evaluation against clinically important HIV mutant strains. Benjahad, A., Courté, K., Guillemont, J., Mabire, D., Coupa, S., Poncelet, A., Csoka, I., Andries, K., Pauwels, R., de Béthune, M.P., Monneret, C., Bisagni, E., Nguyen, C.H., Grierson, D.S. J. Med. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Thrombin inhibitors with novel P1 binding pocket functionality: free energy of binding analysis. Mlinsek, G., Oblak, M., Hodoscek, M., Solmajer, T. Journal of molecular modeling (2007) [Pubmed]
  18. Phase 1 study of combination therapy with L-697,661 and zidovudine. The ACTG 184 Protocol Team. Schooley, R.T., Campbell, T.B., Kuritzkes, D.R., Blaschke, T., Stein, D.S., Rosandich, M.E., Phair, J., Pottage, J.C., Messari, F., Collier, A., Kahn, J. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Viral resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific pyridinone reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Nunberg, J.H., Schleif, W.A., Boots, E.J., O'Brien, J.A., Quintero, J.C., Hoffman, J.M., Emini, E.A., Goldman, M.E. J. Virol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Assessment of antiretroviral therapy by plasma viral load testing: standard and ICD HIV-1 p24 antigen and viral RNA (QC-PCR) assays compared. Kappes, J.C., Saag, M.S., Shaw, G.M., Hahn, B.H., Chopra, P., Chen, S., Emini, E.A., McFarland, R., Yang, L.C., Piatak, M. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. (1995) [Pubmed]
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