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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Functional implications of kappa opioid receptor-mediated modulation of glutamate transmission in the output regions of the basal ganglia in rodent and primate models of Parkinson's disease.

Parkinson's disease is characterized by an increased excitatory amino acid transmission in the internal segment of the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata. The effects of the kappa receptor agonist enadoline (CI-977) on glutamate transmission were investigated in vitro. Enadoline reduced the K(+)-evoked release of glutamate from slices of substantia nigra in a concentration-dependent manner (maximum effect: 78% inhibition at 200 microM). This effect was blocked by the selective kappa receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine. The endogenous ligand for kappa receptors is thought to be dynorphin. Dynorphin released from terminals of striato-pallidal and striato-nigral pathways might thus act as an endogenous modulatory agent on glutamatergic transmission in the basal ganglia. In vivo experiments were carried out in rodent and primate models of Parkinson's disease to assess the potential of manipulating kappa receptors as a potential treatment for Parkinson's disease. Enadoline reduced reserpine-induced akinesia when injected in the entopeduncular nucleus of the rat. Similarly, injections of CI-977 in the internal segment of globus pallidus (GPi) of the MPTP-treated marmoset alleviated parkinsonian symptoms and allowed the animal to recover its locomotor activity. This suggest that reducing the overactive glutamatergic transmission in the output regions of the basal ganglia by activating kappa receptors might potentially form the basis of a novel anti-parkinsonian therapy.[1]


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