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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Angioscopic detection of residual pulmonary thrombi in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary embolism.

Definite diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) by conventional methods such as angiography is frequently difficult. If residual thromboemboli incorporated into the pulmonary arterial wall or in the distal small segments are visible, differential diagnosis of PE versus primary pulmonary hypertension ( PPH) can be made without open-chest pulmonary biopsy. Six patients suspected of having acute PE, 6 suspected of having chronic PE, and 4 with PPH diagnosed by pulmonary biopsy underwent percutaneous pulmonary angioscopy. In patients suspected of having PE, globular and mural thromboemboli were detected by both angioscopy and angiography in 4 and 1 patients, respectively. By angioscopy, emboli incorporated into the arterial wall were detected in 7 and microemboli obstructing the distal small segments were detected in 6. However, these emboli were detected by angiography in none. In patients with PPH, no embolus was detected by angioscopy and angiography. Angioscopically, however, stenoses were observed in the distal small segments in all patients. The results indicate that residual pulmonary thromboemboli in PE and stenoses of distal pulmonary arteries in PPH are detectable by percutaneous angioscopy, and therefore this method is feasible for differential diagnosis of PE.[1]


  1. Angioscopic detection of residual pulmonary thrombi in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Uchida, Y., Oshima, T., Hirose, J., Sasaki, T., Morizuki, S., Morita, T. Am. Heart J. (1995) [Pubmed]
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