The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Transforming growth factor-beta stimulates retinoic acid-induced proteoglycan depletion in intact articular cartilage.

Cartilage-bearing sesamoid bones from the metacarpophalangeal joints of adult cows were cultured with retinoic acid for 1 week and allowed to recover in control medium for another 2 weeks. Retinoic acid decreased the proteoglycan synthesis of the cartilage to 33% of control values, and induced 26% loss of proteoglycans from the matrix. During recovery, the synthesis of proteoglycans returned to the control level but their content remained reduced. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta 1, 5 ng/ml) was added to the culture medium to stimulate the recovery. However, TGF-beta depressed the synthesis of proteoglycans and increased their loss to 61%. Only the large aggregating species, aggrecan, was lost from the matrix. The half-life of proteoglycans synthesized during recovery in control medium was 12.7 days, which was reduced to 8.7 days by TGF-beta. The proteoglycan half-life in control cartilage cultured without retinoic acid or TGF-beta was 33.8 days. Neither retinoic acid nor TGF-beta-induced changes in the hyaluronate content of the tissue. Aggrecans and small proteoglycans synthesized in the presence of TGF-beta were larger than those in controls. The synthesis of the small proteoglycans was stimulated 4.5-fold by TGF-beta, and their content was increased. The results show that TGF-beta can stimulate depletion of aggrecan in retinoic acid-treated cartilage. This indicates a catabolic function of TGF-beta in cartilage remodeling.[1]


  1. Transforming growth factor-beta stimulates retinoic acid-induced proteoglycan depletion in intact articular cartilage. Von den Hoff, H.W., de Koning, M.H., van Kampen, G.P., van der Korst, J.K. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1994) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities