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Gene Review

TGFB1  -  transforming growth factor, beta 1

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Disease relevance of TGFB1


Psychiatry related information on TGFB1

  • Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) has been shown to play a prominent role in controlling proteoglycan synthesis and breakdown as measured following addition to organ cultures of calf articular cartilage (Morales, T. I., and Roberts, A. B., J. Biol. Chem., 263, 12,828-12,831, 1988) [6].

High impact information on TGFB1

  • Synergistic induction of mesoderm by FGF and TGF-beta and the identification of an mRNA coding for FGF in the early Xenopus embryo [7].
  • Altogether, the data support the concept of a biological role for TGF-beta in the IgG-mediated negative feedback of antibody responses [8].
  • In this paper, we show that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) suppresses secondary in vitro anti-sheep red blood cell responses of mouse splenocytes and lipopolysaccharide- or anti-IgM-stimulated mouse B cell responses in a way similar to, and with the same kinetics as, rodent IgG-BF [8].
  • Although TGF beta 1 is normally secreted in a latent, inactive form, exposure of cultured endothelial cells to steady laminar shear stress (20 dynes/cm2) induced increased generation of biologically active TGF beta 1 [9].
  • We tested the hypothesis that exposure of the endothelium to increased laminar shear stress induces the expression of TGF beta 1 via a signal transduction pathway modulated by K+ channel currents [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of TGFB1


Biological context of TGFB1


Anatomical context of TGFB1

  • Our results suggest that active TGF-beta produced by airway epithelial cells may function in an autocrine or paracrine manner to modulate epithelial cell behavior [15].
  • The ability of airway epithelial cells to produce transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) may be an important mechanism for the control of growth, differentiation, and repair of the airway epithelium [15].
  • Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) express both type I and type II receptors for transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) [18].
  • TGF-beta 2.3 inhibited proliferation of mink lung epithelial cells and promoted the formation of colonies of normal rat kidney fibroblasts in culture with specific biological activity similar to those of TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 [19].
  • We demonstrate that depletion of TGF-beta1 receptor ALK5 and regulatory protein Smad4, but not ALK1 receptor attenuates TGF-beta1-induced permeability increase and significantly inhibits TGF-beta1-induced EC contraction manifested by actin stress fiber formation and increased MLC and MYPT1 phosphorylation [17].

Associations of TGFB1 with chemical compounds

  • The subpopulation of heparan sulfate proteoglycans capable to bind bFGF was also largely increased after ACTH or TGF beta treatment and paralleled the variation in overall proteoheparan sulfate synthesis [20].
  • Addition of anti-TGF-beta 1 antibodies, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), or the thrombin inhibitory combination of heparin and anti-thrombin III (AT III) to the cells at the time of scraping blocked about 50% of the increase in bFGF mRNA; the effects of these agents were not additive [21].
  • Cross-linking experiments with disuccinimidyl suberate demonstrated the presence of two TGF beta receptor subtypes, a predominant 85 kDa form and a minor 65 kDa form [22].
  • In general, STS, E2 and P4 increased TGF-beta1 expression [23].
  • TGF-beta1 induced DNA synthesis was inhibited by SB 203580 or PD 98059, selective inhibitors of p38 and MAP kinase kinase (MEK), respectively [24].

Physical interactions of TGFB1

  • Thus those effects of TGF beta and ACTH on proteoglycan synthesis may participate in an increased ability of adrenocortical cells to bind and respond to bFGF [20].
  • Adhesion to a 60 kd tryptic fragment of fibronectin that is not involved in integrin-mediated cell binding was also increased by TGF-beta [25].

Regulatory relationships of TGFB1


Other interactions of TGFB1

  • Neutralizing antisera to TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 were used to demonstrate that the majority of the activity was of the TGF-beta 2 isoform [15].
  • The observed increase in proteolytic activity induced by bFGF was effectively diminished by picogram amounts of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta), but could not be abolished by increasing the amount of TGF beta [26].
  • Together, the results suggest that MGP plays a role in EC function, altering the response to TGF-beta superfamily growth factors [31].
  • Both bFGF and TGF beta increased the secretion of the endothelial-type plasminogen activator inhibitor [26].
  • Antibodies against EGF, FGF-2, IGF-I, and PDGF did not inhibit the TGF-beta1 induced DNA synthesis [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TGFB1


  1. Hyperthermia induces expression of transforming growth factor-beta s in rat cardiac cells in vitro and in vivo. Flanders, K.C., Winokur, T.S., Holder, M.G., Sporn, M.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Hydrogen peroxide-mediated transcriptional induction of macrophage colony-stimulating factor by TGF-beta1. Hong, Y.H., Peng, H.B., La Fata, V., Liao, J.K. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Isoform-specific transforming growth factor-beta binding proteins with membrane attachments sensitive to phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. Cheifetz, S., Massagué, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of hypoxia on glial cell expression of angiogenesis-regulating factors VEGF and TGF-beta. Behzadian, M.A., Wang, X.L., Al-Shabrawey, M., Shabrawey, M., Caldwell, R.B. Glia (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Transforming growth factors-beta 1 and beta 2 induce synthesis and accumulation of hyaluronate and chondroitin sulfate in vivo. Ogawa, Y., Sawamura, S.J., Ksander, G.A., Armstrong, R.M., Pratt, B.M., McPherson, J.M. Growth Factors (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Transforming growth factor-beta in calf articular cartilage organ cultures: synthesis and distribution. Morales, T.I., Joyce, M.E., Sobel, M.E., Danielpour, D., Roberts, A.B. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Synergistic induction of mesoderm by FGF and TGF-beta and the identification of an mRNA coding for FGF in the early Xenopus embryo. Kimelman, D., Kirschner, M. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. A transforming growth factor beta-like immunosuppressive factor in immunoglobulin G-binding factor. Bouchard, C., Galinha, A., Tartour, E., Fridman, W.H., Sautès, C. J. Exp. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Fluid shear stress induces endothelial transforming growth factor beta-1 transcription and production. Modulation by potassium channel blockade. Ohno, M., Cooke, J.P., Dzau, V.J., Gibbons, G.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Interaction of the small interstitial proteoglycans biglycan, decorin and fibromodulin with transforming growth factor beta. Hildebrand, A., Romarís, M., Rasmussen, L.M., Heinegård, D., Twardzik, D.R., Border, W.A., Ruoslahti, E. Biochem. J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of fish oil and alpha-tocopherol in immunoglobulin A nephropathy in the rat. Kuemmerle, N.B., Chan, W., Krieg, R.J., Norkus, E.P., Trachtman, H., Chan, J.C. Pediatr. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Nicotine-induced smooth muscle cell proliferation is mediated through bFGF and TGF-beta 1. Cucina, A., Sapienza, P., Corvino, V., Borrelli, V., Mariani, V., Randone, B., Santoro D'Angelo, L., Cavallaro, A. Surgery (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Induction of a hypertrophic growth status of coronary smooth muscle cells is associated with an overexpression of TGF-beta. Schmidt, A., Göpfert, C., Vlodavsky, I., Völker, W., Buddecke, E. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. alpha-Tocopherol reduces proteinuria, oxidative stress, and expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 in IgA nephropathy in the rat. Chan, W., Krieg, R.J., Norkus, E.P., Chan, J.C. Mol. Genet. Metab. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Spontaneous production of transforming growth factor-beta 2 by primary cultures of bronchial epithelial cells. Effects on cell behavior in vitro. Sacco, O., Romberger, D., Rizzino, A., Beckmann, J.D., Rennard, S.I., Spurzem, J.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Complementary deoxyribonucleic acid cloning of bovine transforming growth factor-beta 1. Van Obberghen-Schilling, E., Kondaiah, P., Ludwig, R.L., Sporn, M.B., Baker, C.C. Mol. Endocrinol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. ALK5 and Smad4 are involved in TGF-beta1-induced pulmonary endothelial permeability. Birukova, A.A., Adyshev, D., Gorshkov, B., Birukov, K.G., Verin, A.D. FEBS Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Expression of transforming growth factor type III receptor in vascular endothelial cells increases their responsiveness to transforming growth factor beta 2. Sankar, S., Mahooti-Brooks, N., Centrella, M., McCarthy, T.L., Madri, J.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Purification and characterization of transforming growth factor-beta 2.3 and -beta 1.2 heterodimers from bovine bone. Ogawa, Y., Schmidt, D.K., Dasch, J.R., Chang, R.J., Glaser, C.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Transforming growth factor beta 1 and adrenocorticotropin differentially regulate the synthesis of adrenocortical cell heparan sulfate proteoglycans and their binding of basic fibroblast growth factor. Jiang, Z., Savona, C., Chambaz, E.M., Feige, J.J. J. Cell. Physiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Regulation of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) gene and protein expression following its release from sublethally injured endothelial cells. Ku, P.T., D'Amore, P.A. J. Cell. Biochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Basic FGF treatment of endothelial cells down-regulates the 85-KDa TGF beta receptor subtype and decreases the growth inhibitory response to TGF-beta 1. Fafeur, V., Terman, B.I., Blum, J., Böhlen, P. Growth Factors (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of hormones and growth factors on TGF-beta1 expression in bovine mammary epithelial cells. Zarzyńska, J., Gajewska, M., Motyl, T. J. Dairy Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. TGF-beta1 increases proliferation of airway smooth muscle cells by phosphorylation of map kinases. Chen, G., Khalil, N. Respir. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Transforming growth factor-beta increases adhesion but not migration of bovine bronchial epithelial cells to matrix proteins. Spurzem, J.R., Sacco, O., Rickard, K.A., Rennard, S.I. J. Lab. Clin. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. The opposing effects of basic fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor beta on the regulation of plasminogen activator activity in capillary endothelial cells. Saksela, O., Moscatelli, D., Rifkin, D.B. J. Cell Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. Characterization of transforming growth factor-beta growth regulatory effects and receptors on bovine mammary cells. Woodward, T.L., Dumont, N., O'Connor-McCourt, M., Turner, J.D., Philip, A. J. Cell. Physiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Up-regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 gene expression by TGF-beta in articular chondrocytes is mediated by serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases. Su, S., DiBattista, J.A., Sun, Y., Li, W.Q., Zafarullah, M. J. Cell. Biochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Characterization of the activation of latent TGF-beta by co-cultures of endothelial cells and pericytes or smooth muscle cells: a self-regulating system. Sato, Y., Tsuboi, R., Lyons, R., Moses, H., Rifkin, D.B. J. Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  30. Transforming growth factor beta1 induction of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1: mechanism of pericyte-induced vascular survival in vivo. Shih, S.C., Ju, M., Liu, N., Mo, J.R., Ney, J.J., Smith, L.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Matrix GLA protein stimulates VEGF expression through increased transforming growth factor-beta1 activity in endothelial cells. Boström, K., Zebboudj, A.F., Yao, Y., Lin, T.S., Torres, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
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