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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Subcellular locations of MOD5 proteins: mapping of sequences sufficient for targeting to mitochondria and demonstration that mitochondrial and nuclear isoforms commingle in the cytosol.

MOD5, a gene responsible for the modification of A37 to isopentenyl A37 of both cytosolic and mitochondrial tRNAs, encodes two isozymes. Initiation of translation at the first AUG of the MOD5 open reading frame generates delta 2-isopentenyl pyrophosphate:tRNA isopentanyl transferase I (IPPT-I), which is located predominantly, but not exclusively, in the mitochondria. Initiation of translation at a second AUG generates IPPT-II, which modifies cytoplasmic tRNA. IPPT-II is unable to target to mitochondria. The N-terminal sequence present in IPPT-I and absent in IPPT-II is therefore necessary for mitochondrial targeting. In these studies, we fused MOD5 sequences encoding N-terminal regions to genes encoding passenger proteins, pseudomature COXIV and dihydrofolate reductase, and studied the ability of these chimeric proteins to be imported into mitochondria both in vivo and in vitro. We found that the sequences necessary for mitochondrial import, amino acids 1 to 11, are not sufficient for efficient mitochondrial targeting and that at least some of the amino acids shared by IPPT-I and IPPT-II comprise part of the mitochondrial targeting information. We used indirect immunofluorescence and cell fractionation to locate the MOD5 isozymes in yeast. IPPT-I was found in two subcellular compartments: mitochondria and the cytosol. We also found that IPPT-II had two subcellular locations: nuclei and the cytosol. The nuclear location of this protein is surprising because the A37-->isopentenyl A37 modification had been predicted to occur in the cytoplasm. MOD5 is one of the first genes reported to encode isozymes found in three subcellular compartments.[1]


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