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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

A novel mouse kidney 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase complementary DNA encodes a 3-ketosteroid reductase instead of a 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta 5-delta 4-isomerase.

The enzyme 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta 5-delta 4-isomerase (3 beta HSD) is essential for the biosynthesis of all steroid hormones. The enzyme catalyzes the conversion of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroids to delta 4-3-ketosteroids. We report the isolation of a novel mouse 3 beta HSD cDNA, 3 beta HSD IV, and describe the tissue-specific expression of its mRNA, the enzyme characteristics of the 3 beta HSD IV protein, and the structural and functional relationships it has to other 3 beta HSD isoforms previously characterized in the mouse and rat. The predicted amino acid sequence of mouse 3 beta HSD IV is 77% and 73% identical to that of mouse 3 beta HSD I and III, respectively. Comparison of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the four isoforms characterized to date show that 3 beta HSD IV is more distantly related to I, II, and III than these three forms are to each other. 3 beta HSD IV mRNA is only expressed in mouse kidney. In situ hybridization of mouse kidney indicates that expression is found only in the cortex and appears to be associated with the proximal tubules. Transiently expressed 3 beta HSD IV protein could not convert the delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroids, pregnenolone or dehydroepiandrosterone, to their respective delta 4-3-ketosteroids, progesterone or androstenedione, nor did it have the capacity to convert 5 alpha-androstane-3 beta, 17 beta-diol to dihydrotestosterone, characteristic enzymatic activities of expressed mouse 3 beta HSD I and III. 3 beta HSD IV could only catalyze the conversion of dihydrotestosterone to 5 alpha-androstanediol in the presence of the cofactor NADPH. Thus, 3 beta HSD IV is a 3-ketosteroid reductase rather than a 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase despite its homology to the other members of the 3 beta HSD family. Mouse 3 beta HSD IV is functionally and structurally most closely related to rat 3 beta HSD III, an isoform expressed predominantly in male rat liver.[1]


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