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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Somatostatin-, vasoactive intestinal peptide-, and granulin-like peptides isolated from intestinal extracts of goldfish, Carassius auratus.

Three new peptides were originally isolated from intestinal extracts of goldfish. They were structurally related with somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and granulin ( GRN) and thus termed goldfish somatostatin (gSS-28), gVIP, and gGRN, respectively. The primary structures of these peptides were determined as: SVESSNHLPA 10RERKAGCKNF20YWKGFTSC for the gSS-28; HSDAVFTDNY10SRYRKQMAAK20KYLNSVLA-NH2 for the gVIP, and VIHCDSSTIC10 PDGTTCCLSP20YGVWYCCPFS30MGQCCRDGIH40CCRHGYHCDS50TSTHCLR for the gGRN. The amino acid sequence of the gSS-28 was more similar (79-86% similarity) to somatostatins obtained in anglerfish, flounder, and sculpin, but far (21% similarity) from the catfish somatostatin, whereas goldfish and catfish belong to the same superorder. The structure of the gVIP was closely related to that of the cod VIP; only one residue (Tyr13) being substituted for Phe13 in the cod VIP. Comparing amino acid sequences of VIPs obtained in various vertebrates, the primary structure of this peptide was revealed to be relatively well conserved among vertebrates. In addition, the dose-response curve for the effect of gVIP on the short-circuit current (Isc) across the eel intestine was similar to that of human VIP, suggesting that VIPs in vertebrates have similar effect. The amino acid sequence of gGRN was 96% identical to that of carp GRN-1; only two residues (Ser6-Ser7) being substituted for Ala6-Ala7 in the carp GRN-1. The physiological significance of these peptides is discussed.[1]


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