The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Selective pressure of a quinoxaline nonnucleoside inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) on HIV-1 replication results in the emergence of nucleoside RT-inhibitor-specific (RT Leu-74-->Val or Ile and Val-75-->Leu or Ile) HIV-1 mutants.

The quinoxaline nonnucleoside RT inhibitor (NNRTI) (S)-4-isopropoxycarbonyl-6-methoxy-3-(methylthiomethyl)-3,4- dihydroquinoxaline-2(1H)-thione (HBY 097) was used to select for drug-resistant HIV-1 variants in vitro. The viruses first developed mutations affecting the NNRTI-binding pocket, and five of six strains displayed the RT G190-->E substitution, which is characteristic for HIV-1 resistance against quinoxalines. In one variant, a new mutant (G190-->Q) most likely evolved from preexisting G190-->E mutants. The negative charge introduced by the G190-->E substitution was maintained at that site of the pocket by simultaneous selection for V179-->D together with G190-->Q. After continued exposure to the drug, mutations at positions so far known to be specific for resistance against nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs) (L74-->V/I and V75-->L/I) were consistently detected in all cultures. The inhibitory activities of the cellular conversion product of 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI, didanosine), 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine (ddA) and of 2',3'-didehydro-3'-deoxythymidine (d4T, stavudine) against these late-passage viruses were shown to be enhanced with the L74-->V/I RT mutant virus as compared with the wild-type (wt) HIV-1MN isolate. Clonal analysis proved linkage of the codon 74 and codon 75 mutations to the NNRTI-specific mutations in all RT gene fragments. The nonnucleoside- and nucleoside-resistance mutation sites are separated by approximately 35 A. We propose that the two sites "communicate" through the template-primer which is situated in the DNA-binding cleft between these two sites. Quinoxalines cause high selective pressure on HIV-1 replication in vitro; however, the implication of these findings for the treatment of HIV-1 infection has yet to be determined.[1]


WikiGenes - Universities