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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Dose responses for neostigmine and edrophonium as antagonists of mivacurium in adults and children.

BACKGROUND: Reversal of neuromuscular blockade induced with pancuronium, d-tubocurarine, or doxacurium is achieved using smaller doses of neostigmine in adults than in children. Also, pancuronium- and doxacurium-induced blockade is reversed with smaller doses of edrophonium in children than in adults. The purpose of this study was to compare the spontaneous and neostigmine- and edrophonium-assisted recovery of mivacurium-induced neuromuscular block in adults and children. METHODS: Fifty-four adults, aged 40.1 +/- 10.9 yr, and 54 children, aged 4.9 +/- 0.7 yr, physical status ASA 1-2, were studied during propofol/fentanyl/nitrous oxide anesthesia. A Datex relaxograph was used to monitor the electromyographic response of the adductor pollicis to train-of-four stimulation of the ulnar nerve every 10 s. After induction of anesthesia, 0.2 mg x kg(-1) intravenous mivacurium was administered followed by an infusion to maintain 90-95% T1 block. At the end of surgery, one of four doses of neostigmine (5, 10, 20, and 50 micrograms x kg(-1)) or edrophonium (100, 200, 400, and 1,000 micrograms x kg(-1)) or placebo was given, by random allocation, when T1 had recovered to 10%. Values of T1 and train-of-four were measured for 10 min. RESULTS: Spontaneous recovery proceeded more rapidly in children than in adults. At 10 min, T1 had recovered to 97 +/- 2% (SD) in children compared with 69 +/- 11% in adults and train-of-four to 84 +/- 5% versus 30 +/- 13% (P<0.0001). In children, 10 min after reversal, recovery of T1 and train-of-four was not different from control after edrophonium and was enhanced only by the larger doses of neostigmine. In adults, recovery was accelerated by both edrophonium and neostigmine. Five minutes after reversal, recovery was improved by either drug in adults and in children. CONCLUSIONS: Spontaneous recovery from mivacurium- induced neuromuscular block is more rapid in children than in adults. Ten minutes after attempted reversal, recovery is accelerated by edrophonium and usually by neostigmine in adults but not in children. Thus, when reversal is required, edrophonium may be preferred to neostigmine.[1]


  1. Dose responses for neostigmine and edrophonium as antagonists of mivacurium in adults and children. Bevan, J.C., Tousignant, C., Stephenson, C., Blackman, L., Reimer, E., Smith, M.F., Bevan, D.R. Anesthesiology (1996) [Pubmed]
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