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Chemical Compound Review

fentanyl     N-(1-phenethyl-4-piperidyl)- N-phenyl...

Synonyms: Fentanil, Matrifen, Pentanyl, Sentonil, Duragesic, ...
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Disease relevance of Fentanest


Psychiatry related information on Fentanest

  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the proportion of drug abuse related to opioid analgesics and the trends in medical use and abuse of 5 opioid analgesics used to treat severe pain: fentanyl, hydromorphone, meperidine, morphine, and oxycodone [6].
  • The severity of the deficit in brain reward function in this animal model suggests that affective fentanyl withdrawal symptoms may be a strong deterrent to abstinence [7].
  • Relief of persistent postamputation stump and phantom limb pain with intrathecal fentanyl [8].
  • On the third postoperative night, the mean +/- SE REM sleep time increased significantly (p=.003) to 9.8% +/- 3.1% in the fentanyl group, and 12.9% +/- 3.8% in the bupivacaine group [9].
  • This report examines the relationship of plasma drug concentration to analgesic effect following bolus doses of alfentanil, fentanyl and morphine and assesses individual differences in analgesic response among volunteers [10].

High impact information on Fentanest

  • INTERVENTIONS: Epidural bupivacaine, epidural fentanyl, or no epidural drug was administered prior to induction of anesthesia and throughout the entire operation, followed by aggressive postoperative epidural analgesia for all patients [11].
  • All nine patients had had surgery, and each of these patients but only nine of 19 operated-on control patients had received intravenous fentanyl citrate in the operating room; the mean dose given to the nine case patients was far greater than that given to control patients [12].
  • Nevertheless, transdermal fentanyl appears to be safe and effective after orthopedic surgery in healthy adult patients [1].
  • Finally, high doses of fentanyl, which stimulates both classical mu-opioid receptors and ORL1, exacerbated excitotoxic white-matter lesion [13].
  • METHODS: We compared the analgesic effect of intravenous dose titration of fentanyl with diazepam (active placebo) or saline (inert placebo) in 53 patients with different types of neuropathic pain [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of Fentanest

  • A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized design was used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of transdermal fentanyl citrate for postoperative pain management in 42 healthy adult patients undergoing major shoulder surgery [1].
  • To study the cardiac effects of progressive hypoxemia, we measured the left ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume relation (ESPVR), myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2), and myocardial oxygen delivery (MQO2) in eight thoracotomized dogs anesthetized with fentanyl and droperidol [15].
  • When isoflurane, fentanyl, or thiopental were used for anesthesia, the CSF pressure-lowering effect of hypocapnia was sustained [16].
  • Postischemic hyperemia occurred in the cortical regions of cats anesthetized with pentobarbital or alpha-chloralose that had reduced cerebral blood flows during occlusion but not in cats anesthetized with fentanyl (cerebral blood flow during occlusion not different from that of cats anesthetized with pentobarbital or alpha-chloralose) or halothane [17].
  • In the present study, we used a novel nNOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) to examine the role of nNOS in CBF during normocapnia and hypercapnia in fentanyl/N2O-anesthetized rats [18].

Biological context of Fentanest

  • During anaesthesia, for each rise in blood pressure of more than 20% of the preanaesthetic (baseline) value, the patient received 0.1 mg fentanyl [19].
  • To understand the cardiovascular response to respiratory acidosis, we measured hemodynamics, left ventricular pressure, and left ventricular volume (three ultrasonic crystal pairs) during eucapnia and respiratory acidosis in 10 fentanyl-anesthetized open-chest dogs [20].
  • To predict the affinity for binding to the opiate receptor, a Hansch correlation was determined between the 50% inhibitory concentration for a series of halogen-substituted fentanyl analogs and electronic, lipophilic, and steric parameters [21].
  • In addition, activation of ERK1/2 by fentanyl and morphine was rescued in GRK3(-/-) neurons following transfection with dominant positive arrestin3-(R170E) [22].
  • In addition, U0126 (a selective inhibitor of MEK kinase responsible for ERK phosphorylation) blocked ERK1/2 activation by fentanyl [22].

Anatomical context of Fentanest


Associations of Fentanest with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Fentanest

  • In oocytes expressing GRK5 instead of GRK3, both [D-Ala2,N-MePhe4, Gly-ol5]enkephalin and fentanyl, but not morphine, produced desensitization of MOR-activated potassium conductance [33].
  • Specific known inhibitors of CYP enzymes gave similar results, whereas the use of recombinant human CYP enzymes expressed in yeast provided information about the possible involvement of other CYPs than CYP3A4 in the biotransformation of fentanyl and sufentanil [34].
  • The plasma GH response to FE was blunted at menstruation relative to the GH response at ovulation [35].
  • Fentanyl (10 microM) did not stimulate NMDA receptors [36].
  • CYP3A inhibition decreases alfentanil clearance more than fentanyl clearance, confirming that the extraction ratio influences the consequence of altered hepatic drug metabolism [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Fentanest

  • The fentanyl significantly reduced the sensory intensity without reducing the unpleasantness of the tooth pulp stimuli, indicating that the mechanisms of narcotic analgesia may include a significant attenuation in pain sensation in addition to effects on pain reaction [38].
  • Forty subjects rated the magnitude of painful electrical stimulation of tooth pulp before and after the intravenous administration of either fentanyl, a short-acting narcotic, or a saline placebo [38].
  • The aim of this prospective randomised double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial was to assess relief of pain intensity and pain unpleasantness with intravenous infusions of fentanyl [14].
  • To test this hypothesis, 10 dogs anesthetized with fentanyl were studied during cardiopulmonary bypass [39].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Isolated hearts harvested from New Zealand White rabbits were treated with either cardioplegia alone or delta-opiate drugs (fentanyl, morphine, buprenorphine, pentazocine) followed by 2 hours of 34 degrees C ischemia [40].


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  11. Preemptive epidural analgesia and recovery from radical prostatectomy: a randomized controlled trial. Gottschalk, A., Smith, D.S., Jobes, D.R., Kennedy, S.K., Lally, S.E., Noble, V.E., Grugan, K.F., Seifert, H.A., Cheung, A., Malkowicz, S.B., Gutsche, B.B., Wein, A.J. JAMA (1998) [Pubmed]
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  14. Randomised double-blind active-placebo-controlled crossover trial of intravenous fentanyl in neuropathic pain. Dellemijn, P.L., Vanneste, J.A. Lancet (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Progressive hypoxemia limits left ventricular oxygen consumption and contractility. Walley, K.R., Becker, C.J., Hogan, R.A., Teplinsky, K., Wood, L.D. Circ. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Reduction of cerebrospinal fluid pressure by hypocapnia: changes in cerebral blood volume, cerebrospinal fluid volume and brain tissue water and electrolytes. II. Effects of anesthetics. Artru, A.A. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Anesthetic modulation of cerebral hemodynamic and evoked responses to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in cats. Helfaer, M.A., Kirsch, J.R., Traystman, R.J. Stroke (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. The role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in regulation of cerebral blood flow in normocapnia and hypercapnia in rats. Wang, Q., Pelligrino, D.A., Baughman, V.L., Koenig, H.M., Albrecht, R.F. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Safety and efficacy of xenon in routine use as an inhalational anaesthetic. Lachmann, B., Armbruster, S., Schairer, W., Landstra, M., Trouwborst, A., Van Daal, G.J., Kusuma, A., Erdmann, W. Lancet (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Acute respiratory acidosis decreases left ventricular contractility but increases cardiac output in dogs. Walley, K.R., Lewis, T.H., Wood, L.D. Circ. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
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  22. Mu Opioid Receptor Activation of ERK1/2 Is GRK3 and Arrestin Dependent in Striatal Neurons. Macey, T.A., Lowe, J.D., Chavkin, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Randomised comparison of combined spinal-epidural and standard epidural analgesia in labour. Collis, R.E., Davies, D.W., Aveling, W. Lancet (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Unilateral analgesia following injection of fentanyl into the lumbosacral plexus. Smith, B., Pinnock, C., Fischer, B., Trotter, T., Scott, P. Lancet (1987) [Pubmed]
  25. beta-Arrestin2, interacting with phosphodiesterase 4, regulates synaptic release probability and presynaptic inhibition by opioids. Bradaïa, A., Berton, F., Ferrari, S., Lüscher, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
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  27. Passive properties of canine left ventricle: diastolic stiffness and restoring forces. Nikolić, S., Yellin, E.L., Tamura, K., Vetter, H., Tamura, T., Meisner, J.S., Frater, R.W. Circ. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
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  30. Elective bedside surgery in critically injured patients is safe and cost-effective. Van Natta, T.L., Morris, J.A., Eddy, V.A., Nunn, C.R., Rutherford, E.J., Neuzil, D., Jenkins, J.M., Bass, J.G. Ann. Surg. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Pharmacokinetics of midazolam, propofol, and fentanyl transfer to human breast milk. Nitsun, M., Szokol, J.W., Saleh, H.J., Murphy, G.S., Vender, J.S., Luong, L., Raikoff, K., Avram, M.J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
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