The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Opioid and anti-opioid peptides.

The numerous endogenous opioid peptides (beta-endorphin, enkephalins, dynorphins ... ) and the exogenous opioids (such as morphine) exert their effects through the activation of receptors belonging to four main types, mu, delta, kappa and epsilon. Opioidergic neurones and opioid receptors are largely distributed centrally and peripherally. It is thus not surprising that opioids have numerous pharmacological effects and that endogenous opioids are thought to be involved in the physiological control of various functions, among which nociception is particularly emphasized. Some opioid targets may be components of homeostatic systems tending to reduce the effects of opioids. "Anti-opioid" properties have been attributed to various peptides, especially cholecystokinin (CCK), neuropeptide FF (NPFF) and melanocyte inhibiting factor (MIF)-related peptides. In addition, a particular place should be attributed, paradoxically, to opioid peptides themselves among the anti-opioid peptides. These peptides can oppose some of the acute effects of opioids, and a hyperactivation of anti-opioid peptidergic neurones due to the chronic administration of opioids may be involved in the development of opioid tolerance and/or dependence. In fact, CCK, NPFF and the MIF family of peptides have complex properties and can act as opioid-like as well as anti-opioid peptides. Thus, "opioid modulating peptides" would be a better term to designate these peptides, which probably participate, together with the opioid systems, in multiple feed-back loops for the maintenance of homeostasis. "Opioid modulating peptides" have generally been shown to act through the activation of their own receptors. For example, CCK appears to exert its anti-opioid actions mainly through the activation of CCK-B receptors, whereas its opioid-like effects seem to result from the stimulation of CCK-A receptors. However, the partial agonistic properties at opioid receptors of some MIF-related peptides very likely contribute to their ability to modulate the effects of opioids. CCK- and NPFF-related drugs have potential therapeutic interest as adjuncts to opioids for alleviating pain and/or for the treatment of opioid abuse.[1]


  1. Opioid and anti-opioid peptides. Cesselin, F. Fundamental & clinical pharmacology. (1995) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities