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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Hydroxyalkenal formation induced by advanced glycosylation of low density lipoprotein.

Advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) have been identified to be present on both the apolipoprotein and lipid components of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and to act to prevent its recognition and uptake by high affinity, tissue LDL receptors. Lipid-linked AGEs form readily in vitro by the covalent addition of glucose to the amine-containing head groups of phospholipids. This process is accompanied by oxidation of the unsaturated fatty acid side chains and occurs in the absence of exogenously added transition metals or free radical generating systems, suggesting that AGE formation may contribute significantly to lipid oxidation in vivo. To assess more precisely the chemical basis of AGE-induced oxidative modification, we performed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the lipid products which form over time during LDL-advanced glycosylation in vitro. Negative ion chemical ionization mass spectroscopy of two major compounds that were identified were consistent with the structures of the fatty acid oxidation products 4-hydroxyhexenal and 4-hydroxynonenal. These data support the concept that AGE formation in close proximity to unsaturated fatty acyl groups leads to lipid oxidation and provide additional evidence that advanced glycosylation is an important pathogenic modification of the LDL particle in vivo.[1]


  1. Hydroxyalkenal formation induced by advanced glycosylation of low density lipoprotein. Al-Abed, Y., Liebich, H., Voelter, W., Bucala, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
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