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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

PR-39, a proline-rich antibacterial peptide that inhibits phagocyte NADPH oxidase activity by binding to Src homology 3 domains of p47 phox.

Reactive oxygen intermediates generated by the phagocyte NADPH oxidase are critically important components of host defense. However, these highly toxic oxidants can cause significant tissue injury during inflammation; thus, it is essential that their generation and inactivation are tightly regulated. We show here that an endogenous proline-arginine (PR)-rich antibacterial peptide, PR-39, inhibits NADPH oxidase activity by blocking assembly of this enzyme through interactions with Src homology 3 domains of a cytosolic component. This neutrophil-derived peptide inhibited oxygen-dependent microbicidal activity of neutrophils in whole cells and in a cell-free assay of NADPH oxidase. Both oxidase inhibitory and direct antimicrobial activities were defined within the amino-terminal 26 residues of PR-39. Oxidase inhibition was attributed to binding of PR-39 to the p47phox cytosolic oxidase component. Its effects involve both a polybasic amino-terminal segment and a proline-rich core region of PR-39 that binds to the p47phox Src homology 3 domains and, thereby, inhibits interaction with the small subunit of cytochrome b558, p22phox. These findings suggest that PR-39, which has been shown to be involved in tissue repair processes, is a multifunctional peptide that can regulate NADPH oxidase production of superoxide anion O2-. thus limiting excessive tissue damage during inflammation.[1]


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