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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Codon usage in the prototype baculovirus--Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus.

The overall codon usage profile of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) was analyzed, using UWGCG sequence analysis software package from the known protein coding gene sequences available in GenBank Release 72. The analysis revealed that although only 45% of the codon used by AcNPV have G/C at wobble base position, 15 out of 20 AcNPV codons over-utilized for their given amino acids has G/C at the wobble position indicating a possible selection of these codons. The differences in codon usage profile were studied using a parameter called D squared value, calculated with the aid of CORRESPOND program of UWGCG software package. While most of the codon usage profile of the individual genes was very similar to the overall AcNPV codon usage profile (D squared value less than 1.5), there were notable differences (D-squared value greater than 1.5). These genes were polh, p10, ub, sod, gp41, core, 25k, 39k, ie-n, etm, ets most of which, interestingly, belonged to late or very late class and were expressed relatively more efficiently. The two highly expressed genes of AcNPV, polh and the p10, differ from the overall AcNPV codon usage profile with respect to at least nine amino acids (Val, Ala, Ser, Lys, Ile, Thr, Leu, Phe, Arg). Our findings that the two highly expressed late genes polh and p10 utilize a codon usage profile different from the early genes have important implications.[1]


  1. Codon usage in the prototype baculovirus--Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Ranjan, A., Hasnain, S.E. Indian J. Biochem. Biophys. (1995) [Pubmed]
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