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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)


Sterilization is accepted as a permanent method of contraception by many couples in the world. Female sterilization is more widely used than male sterilization, but the latter is used by many couples in developed countries. The most widely used methods for female sterilization are simple tubal ligation, electrocautery of the fallopian tubes, and occlusion of the tubes by Hulka or Filshie clips or Falope rings. These procedures may be carried out either by minilaparotomy or by laparoscopy, under local anaesthesia. Sterilization may be performed immediately following pregnancy, or as an interval operation. The effectiveness of female sterilization is high, with failure rates of about 1-2 per 1000 procedures. Immediate complications are few and minor, while there appear to be no serious, long-term adverse effects. It is possible that there is a protective effect against ovarian cancer. Potential new technologies for female sterilization include the use of chemicals, such as quinacrine, for transcervical tubal occlusion, and hysteroscopic methods. Male sterilization is more simple and can readily be performed under local anaesthesia. A new technique originating in China, the no-scalpel technique, has made the procedure even more simple and produces fewer complications such as haematoma. It is possible that the direct injection of plug-forming material into the vas may render the procedure more reversible. Concerns about possible adverse effects of vasectomy on cardiovascular diseases and testicular cancer largely have been dispelled, but a possible weak association between vasectomy and prostatic cancer continues to be studied.[1]


  1. Sterilization. Wilson, E.W. Baillière's clinical obstetrics and gynaecology. (1996) [Pubmed]
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