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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Search for the pharmacophore in kappa-agonistic diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-one-1,5-diesters and arylacetamides.

Several heterocyclic bicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-ones were found to have a high affinity to kappa opioid receptors, 3,7-Diazabicyclononanones with 2,4-dipyridyl side chains were the most potent agonists whereas the corresponding 3-oxa-7-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-one and compounds with phenyl substituents in 2 and 4 position are almost inactive. The purpose of this study was to unravel the active conformation of the bicyclononanones using well-known kappa-selective agonists such as ketocyclazocine, arylacetamides, several isoquinolines, CI-977, and four stereoisomers of EMD-61753 for comparison. In order to determine the geometry of the diazabicycles in solution pH-dependent NMR measurements of the bicycles were recorded and the results were related to the geometries of the aforementioned kappa agonists obtained from semiempirical PM3 calculations. A chair-boat conformation and a protonation at the N7 nitrogen atom of the diazabicyclononanones were found to be the pharmacophoric conformation. Comparison of the spatial arrangements, electrostatic, hydrophobic, and hydrogen bonding potentials of all kappa-selective agonists led to a model of structure-activity relationships of ligands of the kappa receptor. The arrangement of the pharmacophoric elements is characterized by an almost parallel orientation of a carbonyl and a protonated NH function in conjunction with at least one aromatic ring. Ketocyclazocine is only able to adopt this parallel orientation when the nitrogen is inverted relative to the X-ray structure. Furthermore, two binding sites for the aromatic rings are discussed. The pharmacological results of all considered bicyclononanone derivatives as well as of the four enantiomers of EMD-61753 can be understood and consistently explained in this way.[1]


  1. Search for the pharmacophore in kappa-agonistic diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-one-1,5-diesters and arylacetamides. Brandt, W., Drosihn, S., Haurand, M., Holzgrabe, U., Nachtsheim, C. Arch. Pharm. (Weinheim) (1996) [Pubmed]
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