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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Affinity modulation of the platelet integrin alpha IIb beta 3 by alpha-chymotrypsin: a possible role for Na+/Ca2+ exchanger.

In the present study, we have investigated the mechanism of affinity modulation of alpha IIb beta 3 by chymotrypsin. We first confirmed that alpha-chymotrypsin could activate alpha IIb beta 3 (approximately 7,000 molecules per platelet) without major intracellular signaling. However, we unexpectedly found that high concentrations of amiloride dose-dependently inhibited 125I-fibrinogen binding to the chymotrypsin-treated platelets, as well as the platelet aggregation (IC50 [50% inhibitory concentration] for fibrinogen binding, 530 mumol/L). In contrast, amiloride did not inhibit alpha IIb beta 3 activation induced by anti-alpha IIb beta 3 monoclonal antibody PT25-2 or AP5. To identify the pathway involved, the effects of alteration of Na+ gradient in platelets were examined. Lowering Na+ gradient by replacing extracellular Na+ with tetramethylammonium (TMA) increased the number of activated alpha IIb beta 3 by twofold, as assessed by fibrinogen-binding assay. The incubation of platelets with ouabain, a Na+/K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) inhibitor, further augmented alpha IIb beta 3 activation. These data suggested that a likely candidate for the pathway was Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. At 140 mmol/L [Na+]o, 45Ca2+ influx to the chymotrypsin-treated platelets was twofold greater than that to non-treated platelets. Replacement of Na+ with TMA further increased the Ca2+ influx, and the increase was inhibited by amiloride dose-dependently. 3',4'-Dichlorobenzamil ( DCB) and bepridil, relatively specific inhibitors of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, also inhibited the chymotrypsin-induced alpha IIb beta 3 activation, and the IC50 values of these inhibitors for fibrinogen binding were 25 mumol/L and 52 mumol/L, respectively. Moreover, platelet aggregation induced by various physiologic agonists was inhibited by DCB or bepridil, while platelet agglutination by ristocetin was not. Our data newly suggest that Na+/Ca2+ exchanger operating in reverse mode may be directly involved in inside-out signaling that activates alpha IIb beta 3.[1]


  1. Affinity modulation of the platelet integrin alpha IIb beta 3 by alpha-chymotrypsin: a possible role for Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Shiraga, M., Tomiyama, Y., Honda, S., Kashiwagi, H., Kosugi, S., Handa, M., Ikeda, Y., Kanakura, Y., Kurata, Y., Matsuzawa, Y. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
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