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Gene Review

EEF1B2P2  -  eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: BETA-3, EEF-1, EEF-1BETA5A, EEF1B, EEF1B3
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Disease relevance of EEF1B3


Psychiatry related information on EEF1B3

  • beta-Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are the defining neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease, but their pathophysiological relation is unclear [6].
  • beta-cell apoptosis and defense mechanisms: lessons from type 1 diabetes [7].
  • Oscillatory Beta Activity Predicts Response Speed during a Multisensory Audiovisual Reaction Time Task: A High-Density Electrical Mapping Study [8].
  • In Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, striatal deficits in alpha6 (91 and 59% respectively, P < 0.01) and beta3 (72 and 75%, P < 0.05) tended to be greater than for alpha4 and beta2 (50-58%, P < 0.05) [9].
  • Successful development of an antiobesity and antidiabetic drug from this class of compounds will require the elucidation of the physiological role of the human beta3-receptor and the regulatory mechanism between fuel efficiency and feeding behavior [10].

High impact information on EEF1B3


Chemical compound and disease context of EEF1B3


Biological context of EEF1B3

  • We now find that RGD peptide binding leads to changes in alpha IIb beta 3 that are associated with acquisition of high affinity fibrinogen-binding function (activation) and subsequent platelet aggregation [19].
  • Transfection of alpha v(-) cells with a cDNA encoding alpha v results in the expression of integrins alpha v beta 3 and alpha v beta 5 and allows virus internalization and infection [3].
  • Integrin alpha v beta 3 antagonists promote tumor regression by inducing apoptosis of angiogenic blood vessels [20].
  • We also show that the alpha 5 and gamma 3 genes are located between the p and beta 3 genes on mouse chromosome 7 [21].
  • We show that the polarized distribution of alpha v beta 3 integrins in migrating neutrophils is maintained by [Ca2+]i-dependent release of adhesion followed by endocytosis of these integrins and recycling to the leading edge [22].

Anatomical context of EEF1B3

  • MMP-2 and alpha v beta 3 were specifically colocalized on angiogenic blood vessels and melanoma cells in vivo [1].
  • A single intravascular injection of a cyclic peptide or monoclonal antibody antagonist of integrin alpha v beta 3 disrupts ongoing angiogenesis on the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) [20].
  • Expression of transforming growth factor beta 3 in hypertrophic juxtaglomerular apparatus [23].
  • The murine T-cell response to staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) has recently been shown to involve only those T cells expressing T-cell receptor V beta 3, 8.1, 8.2 and 8.3 domains, a situation which closely mimics the response to Mls antigens [24].
  • Instead, the endothelium is an important organ possessing at least five different adrenoceptor subtypes (alpha2A/D, alpha2C, beta1, beta2, and beta3), which either directly or through the release of nitric oxide actively participate in the regulation of the vascular tone [25].

Associations of EEF1B3 with chemical compounds

  • Thus, beta 3 (118-131), a highly conserved region in integrin beta subunits, binds both ligand and cation [26].
  • We demonstrate that the vitro-nectin-binding integrins alpha v beta 3 and alpha v beta 5 promote viral infection in a novel way since antibodies against these receptors or soluble penton base block virus internalization without affecting attachment [3].
  • Cation binding to beta 3 (118-131) was demonstrated by terbium luminescence and mass spectroscopy [26].
  • The activity-dependent reduction in Pr and a switch in the subunit composition of synaptic NMDA receptors was prevented by chronic blockade with peptides containing the integrin-binding site Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), or by a functional antibody against the beta3 integrin subunit [27].
  • After induction by galactose, functional h beta-AR was expressed at a concentration several hundred times as great as that found in any human tissue [28].

Physical interactions of EEF1B3


Enzymatic interactions of EEF1B3

  • In confluent SMCs, the beta3-subunit was constitutively phosphorylated leading to basal binding of SHP-2 [34].
  • In conclusion, this is a novel and important finding where we have shown that beta3-chain is cleaved by MT1-MMP, and this cleavage enhances migration of prostate cancer cells [35].
  • Finally, the cytoskeleton-associated PTP1C became tyrosine-phosphorylated in an alpha IIb beta 3-mediated aggregation-dependent manner [36].

Co-localisations of EEF1B3

  • An immunohistochemical staining showed that integrin alpha1, alpha4, and beta3 were co-localized with cytokeratin, confirming the epithelial origin of the cells [37].

Regulatory relationships of EEF1B3

  • CD40-deficient mice exhibited normal thrombogenesis. rsCD40L specifically bound to purified integrin alphaIIbbeta3 and to activated platelets in a beta3-dependent manner and induced platelet spreading [38].
  • In this study, we show that purified CYR61 stimulates directed migration of human microvascular endothelial cells in culture through an alphaV beta3-dependent pathway and induces neovascularization in rat corneas [39].
  • Remarkably similar usage of J beta regions was noted, and two individuals demonstrated V beta 3-expressing clones with homologous CDR3 regions, differing by only one major substitution [40].
  • The fibroblastoid phenotype correlated with up-regulated beta1 and beta3 integrin and down-regulated E-cadherin expression, as shown by flow cytometry, Western blot and RT-PCR, as well as up-regulated expression of the matrix metalloproteinase MMP-9, as demonstrated by zymography [41].
  • The alpha v beta 3 integrin antibody also markedly inhibited TGF-1- and EGF-induced SMC Fn production [42].

Other interactions of EEF1B3


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of EEF1B3

  • We demonstrate therefore that ligation of integrin alpha v beta 3 is required for the survival and maturation of newly forming blood vessels, an event essential for the proliferation of tumors [20].
  • Accordingly, Northern blot analysis identifies an mRNA for alpha v, but not for beta 3 in carcinoma cells [48].
  • BACKGROUND: Beta radiation is effective in reducing vascular neointimal proliferation in animals after injury caused by balloon angioplasty [49].
  • BACKGROUND: Beta-blocking agents reduce the risk of hospitalization and death in patients with mild-to-moderate heart failure, but little is known about their effects in severe heart failure [50].
  • The accumulations of three beta-tubulin mRNAs (beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3) are temporally coordinated with ciliogenesis during blastula development and with the regeneration of cilia after their amputation [51].


  1. Localization of matrix metalloproteinase MMP-2 to the surface of invasive cells by interaction with integrin alpha v beta 3. Brooks, P.C., Strömblad, S., Sanders, L.C., von Schalscha, T.L., Aimes, R.T., Stetler-Stevenson, W.G., Quigley, J.P., Cheresh, D.A. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. The linkage arrangement of four rabbit beta-like globin genes. Lacy, E., Hardison, R.C., Quon, D., Maniatis, T. Cell (1979) [Pubmed]
  3. Integrins alpha v beta 3 and alpha v beta 5 promote adenovirus internalization but not virus attachment. Wickham, T.J., Mathias, P., Cheresh, D.A., Nemerow, G.R. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Mutations in the gene encoding gap junction protein beta-3 associated with autosomal dominant hearing impairment. Xia, J.H., Liu, C.Y., Tang, B.S., Pan, Q., Huang, L., Dai, H.P., Zhang, B.R., Xie, W., Hu, D.X., Zheng, D., Shi, X.L., Wang, D.A., Xia, K., Yu, K.P., Liao, X.D., Feng, Y., Yang, Y.F., Xiao, J.Y., Xie, D.H., Huang, J.Z. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Further characterization of the thrombasthenia-related idiotype OG. Antiidiotype defines a novel epitope(s) shared by fibrinogen B beta chain, vitronectin, and von Willebrand factor and required for binding to beta 3. Gruel, Y., Brojer, E., Nugent, D.J., Kunicki, T.J. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Formation of neurofibrillary tangles in P301l tau transgenic mice induced by Abeta 42 fibrils. Götz, J., Chen, F., van Dorpe, J., Nitsch, R.M. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. beta-cell apoptosis and defense mechanisms: lessons from type 1 diabetes. Eizirik, D.L., Darville, M.I. Diabetes (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Oscillatory Beta Activity Predicts Response Speed during a Multisensory Audiovisual Reaction Time Task: A High-Density Electrical Mapping Study. Senkowski, D., Molholm, S., Gomez-Ramirez, M., Foxe, J.J. Cereb. Cortex (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit deficits identified in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies by immunoprecipitation. Gotti, C., Moretti, M., Bohr, I., Ziabreva, I., Vailati, S., Longhi, R., Riganti, L., Gaimarri, A., McKeith, I.G., Perry, R.H., Aarsland, D., Larsen, J.P., Sher, E., Beattie, R., Clementi, F., Court, J.A. Neurobiol. Dis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Antiobesity and antidiabetic beta-agonists: lessons learned and questions to be answered. Yen, T.T. Obes. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Structural basis of integrin activation by talin. Wegener, K.L., Partridge, A.W., Han, J., Pickford, A.R., Liddington, R.C., Ginsberg, M.H., Campbell, I.D. Cell (2007) [Pubmed]
  12. Association of a human G-protein beta3 subunit variant with hypertension. Siffert, W., Rosskopf, D., Siffert, G., Busch, S., Moritz, A., Erbel, R., Sharma, A.M., Ritz, E., Wichmann, H.E., Jakobs, K.H., Horsthemke, B. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Domain organization of allele-specific replication within the GABRB3 gene cluster requires a biparental 15q11-13 contribution. LaSalle, J.M., Lalande, M. Nat. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. alpha v beta3-dependent cross-presentation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 by melanoma cells gives rise to a new tumor antigen. Godefroy, E., Moreau-Aubry, A., Diez, E., Dreno, B., Jotereau, F., Guilloux, Y. J. Exp. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Integrin alpha v beta 5 selectively promotes adenovirus mediated cell membrane permeabilization. Wickham, T.J., Filardo, E.J., Cheresh, D.A., Nemerow, G.R. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. The molecular genetic basis of Glanzmann thrombasthenia in the Iraqi-Jewish and Arab populations in Israel. Newman, P.J., Seligsohn, U., Lyman, S., Coller, B.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Concordance between isolated cleft palate in mice and alterations within a region including the gene encoding the beta 3 subunit of the type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor. Culiat, C.T., Stubbs, L., Nicholls, R.D., Montgomery, C.S., Russell, L.B., Johnson, D.K., Rinchik, E.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. A Leu117-->Trp mutation within the RGD-peptide cross-linking region of beta3 results in Glanzmann thrombasthenia by preventing alphaIIb beta3 export to the platelet surface. Basani, R.B., Brown, D.L., Vilaire, G., Bennett, J.S., Poncz, M. Blood (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Ligands "activate" integrin alpha IIb beta 3 (platelet GPIIb-IIIa). Du, X.P., Plow, E.F., Frelinger, A.L., O'Toole, T.E., Loftus, J.C., Ginsberg, M.H. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Integrin alpha v beta 3 antagonists promote tumor regression by inducing apoptosis of angiogenic blood vessels. Brooks, P.C., Montgomery, A.M., Rosenfeld, M., Reisfeld, R.A., Hu, T., Klier, G., Cheresh, D.A. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. A cluster of three GABAA receptor subunit genes is deleted in a neurological mutant of the mouse p locus. Nakatsu, Y., Tyndale, R.F., DeLorey, T.M., Durham-Pierre, D., Gardner, J.M., McDanel, H.J., Nguyen, Q., Wagstaff, J., Lalande, M., Sikela, J.M. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Ca(2+)- and calcineurin-dependent recycling of an integrin to the front of migrating neutrophils. Lawson, M.A., Maxfield, F.R. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Expression of transforming growth factor beta 3 in hypertrophic juxtaglomerular apparatus. Ray, P.E., McCune, B.K., Gomez, R.A., Ruley, E.J., Klotman, P.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. High-affinity binding of staphylococcal enterotoxins A and B to HLA-DR. Fraser, J.D. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Vascular adrenoceptors: an update. Guimarães, S., Moura, D. Pharmacol. Rev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Ligand and cation binding are dual functions of a discrete segment of the integrin beta 3 subunit: cation displacement is involved in ligand binding. D'Souza, S.E., Haas, T.A., Piotrowicz, R.S., Byers-Ward, V., McGrath, D.E., Soule, H.R., Cierniewski, C., Plow, E.F., Smith, J.W. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Integrins mediate functional pre- and postsynaptic maturation at a hippocampal synapse. Chavis, P., Westbrook, G. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Control of yeast mating signal transduction by a mammalian beta 2-adrenergic receptor and Gs alpha subunit. King, K., Dohlman, H.G., Thorner, J., Caron, M.G., Lefkowitz, R.J. Science (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. Tissue transglutaminase is an integrin-binding adhesion coreceptor for fibronectin. Akimov, S.S., Krylov, D., Fleischman, L.F., Belkin, A.M. J. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Activation of pp125FAK by type 2B recombinant von Willebrand factor binding to platelet GPIb at a high shear rate occurs independently of alpha IIb beta 3 engagement. Mekrache, M., Bachelot-Loza, C., Ajzenberg, N., Saci, A., Legendre, P., Baruch, D. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. CD36 associates with CD9 and integrins on human blood platelets. Miao, W.M., Vasile, E., Lane, W.S., Lawler, J. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Insulin receptor substrate-1 as a signaling molecule for focal adhesion kinase pp125(FAK) and pp60(src). Lebrun, P., Mothe-Satney, I., Delahaye, L., Van Obberghen, E., Baron, V. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Integrin-linked kinase regulates vascular morphogenesis induced by vascular endothelial growth factor. Kaneko, Y., Kitazato, K., Basaki, Y. J. Cell. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the beta3-subunit of the alphaVbeta3 integrin is required for embrane association of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 and its further recruitment to the insulin-like growth factor I receptor. Ling, Y., Maile, L.A., Clemmons, D.R. Mol. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Membrane type-1-matrix metalloproteinase expressed by prostate carcinoma cells cleaves human laminin-5 beta3 chain and induces cell migration. Udayakumar, T.S., Chen, M.L., Bair, E.L., Von Bredow, D.C., Cress, A.E., Nagle, R.B., Bowden, G.T. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Differential regulation of protein-tyrosine phosphatases by integrin alpha IIb beta 3 through cytoskeletal reorganization and tyrosine phosphorylation in human platelets. Ezumi, Y., Takayama, H., Okuma, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  37. A well-defined in vitro three-dimensional culture of human endometrium and its applicability to endometrial cancer invasion. Park, D.W., Choi, D.S., Ryu, H.S., Kwon, H.C., Joo, H., Min, C.K. Cancer Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  38. CD40L stabilizes arterial thrombi by a beta3 integrin--dependent mechanism. André, P., Prasad, K.S., Denis, C.V., He, M., Papalia, J.M., Hynes, R.O., Phillips, D.R., Wagner, D.D. Nat. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  39. CYR61, a product of a growth factor-inducible immediate early gene, promotes angiogenesis and tumor growth. Babic, A.M., Kireeva, M.L., Kolesnikova, T.V., Lau, L.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  40. Analysis of clonal CD8+ T cell expansions in normal individuals and patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Fitzgerald, J.E., Ricalton, N.S., Meyer, A.C., West, S.G., Kaplan, H., Behrendt, C., Kotzin, B.L. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  41. Autocrine TGF-beta-regulated expression of adhesion receptors and integrin-linked kinase in HT-144 melanoma cells correlates with their metastatic phenotype. Janji, B., Melchior, C., Gouon, V., Vallar, L., Kieffer, N. Int. J. Cancer (1999) [Pubmed]
  42. Activation of integrin receptors is required for growth factor-induced smooth muscle cell dysfunction. Mawatari, K., Liu, B., Kent, K.C. J. Vasc. Surg. (2000) [Pubmed]
  43. Comparative genomic analysis of genes encoding translation elongation factor 1B(alpha) in human and mouse shows EEF1B1 to be a recent retrotransposition event. Chambers, D.M., Rouleau, G.A., Abbott, C.M. Genomics (2001) [Pubmed]
  44. Allele specificity of DNA replication timing in the Angelman/Prader-Willi syndrome imprinted chromosomal region. Knoll, J.H., Cheng, S.D., Lalande, M. Nat. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  45. Endoglin modulates cellular responses to TGF-beta 1. Lastres, P., Letamendía, A., Zhang, H., Rius, C., Almendro, N., Raab, U., López, L.A., Langa, C., Fabra, A., Letarte, M., Bernabéu, C. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  46. Thrombospondin modulates alpha v beta 3 function through integrin-associated protein. Gao, A.G., Lindberg, F.P., Dimitry, J.M., Brown, E.J., Frazier, W.A. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  47. In vivo restoration of laminin 5 beta 3 expression and function in junctional epidermolysis bullosa. Robbins, P.B., Lin, Q., Goodnough, J.B., Tian, H., Chen, X., Khavari, P.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  48. A novel vitronectin receptor integrin (alpha v beta x) is responsible for distinct adhesive properties of carcinoma cells. Cheresh, D.A., Smith, J.W., Cooper, H.M., Quaranta, V. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  49. Endoluminal beta-radiation therapy for the prevention of coronary restenosis after balloon angioplasty. The Dose-Finding Study Group. Verin, V., Popowski, Y., de Bruyne, B., Baumgart, D., Sauerwein, W., Lins, M., Kovacs, G., Thomas, M., Calman, F., Disco, C., Serruys, P.W., Wijns, W. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  50. Effect of carvedilol on survival in severe chronic heart failure. Packer, M., Coats, A.J., Fowler, M.B., Katus, H.A., Krum, H., Mohacsi, P., Rouleau, J.L., Tendera, M., Castaigne, A., Roecker, E.B., Schultz, M.K., DeMets, D.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  51. Coordinate and selective beta-tubulin gene expression associated with cilium formation in sea urchin embryos. Harlow, P., Nemer, M. Genes Dev. (1987) [Pubmed]
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