The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Involvement of intracellular or extracellular calcium in activation of tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression in PC12 cells.

The relationship between elevations in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) by different mechanisms and tyrosine hydroxylase ( TH) gene expression was examined. Depolarization by an elevated K+ concentration triggered rapid and sustained increases in [Ca2+]i from a basal level of approximately 50 to 110-150 nM and three- to fourfold elevations in TH mRNA levels, requiring extracellular calcium but not inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). On the other hand, bradykinin or thapsigargin, both of which induce release of intracellular calcium stores via IP3 or inhibition of Ca(2+)-ATPase, rapidly elevated [Ca2+]i to > 200 nM and increased TH gene expression (three-to fivefold). Confocal imaging showed that the elevations in [Ca2+]i in each case occurred throughout the cyto-and nucleoplasm. The initial rise in [Ca2+]i due to either bradykinin or thapsigargin, which did not require extracellular calcium, was sufficient to initiate the events leading to increased TH expression. Consistent with this, the effects of bradykinin on TH expression were inhibited by 1, 2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid or 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid 8-(diethylamino)-octyl ester which chelates or inhibits the release of intracellular calcium, respectively. Bradykinin required a rise in [Ca2+]i for < 10 min, as opposed to 10-30 min for depolarization to increase TH mRNA levels. These results demonstrate that although each of these treatments increased TH gene expression by raising [Ca2+]i, there are important differences among them in terms of the magnitude of elevated [Ca2+]i, requirements for extracellular calcium or release of intracellular calcium stores, and duration of elevated [Ca2+]i, indicating the involvement of different calcium signalling pathways leading to regulation of TH gene expression.[1]


WikiGenes - Universities