The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Thymidylate synthase inhibitors in cancer therapy: direct and indirect inhibitors.

PURPOSE AND METHODS: Although fluoropyrimidines, in particular, fluorouracil (5-FU) and fluorodeoxyuridine (FdUrd), are active alone and in combination with other agents in a variety of human malignancies, therapeutic selectivity, resistance, and efficacy have been a major limitation in cancer therapy. Preclinical and clinical results in advanced and adjuvant colorectal cancers confirmed that the therapeutic efficacy of fluoropyrimidines, with thymidylate synthase (TS) as a primary target, can be improved significantly with leucovorin (LV) modulation. With the recognition that TS is an important therapeutic target, direct and specific inhibitors have been developed and are under intensive preclinical and clinical evaluation, primarily in patients with colorectal cancer, with demonstrable activity. The direct TS inhibitors have been shown to be potent, with a high level of specificity under therapeutic conditions for TS. This includes ZD1694, AG337, and LY231514. To date, although the therapeutic activity of both direct and indirect inhibitors of TS is similar, differences in the magnitude and profile of toxicity have been observed. A phase III comparative evaluation of a direct inhibitor of TS (ZD1694) with an indirect inhibitor (5-FU/LV) has been completed and showed similar activity but reduced toxicity in favor of ZD1694. RESULTS: Recognition that greater than 95% of the injected dose of 5-FU is rapidly inactivated by dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) to therapeutically inactive products, but with toxicity to normal tissues, led to the development of inhibitors of this enzyme with the aim to modify the therapeutic index of 5-FU. Several inhibitors in combination with 5-FU are under preclinical and clinical evaluation, including uracil and 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxy pyridine, as modulators of 5-FU derived from its prodrug tegafur and 5-ethynyluracil as a modulator of 5-FU. CONCLUSION: In this review, an update of the present status of direct and indirect inhibitors of TS is discussed, as well as the future prospect for new drugs alone and in combination.[1]


  1. Thymidylate synthase inhibitors in cancer therapy: direct and indirect inhibitors. Rustum, Y.M., Harstrick, A., Cao, S., Vanhoefer, U., Yin, M.B., Wilke, H., Seeber, S. J. Clin. Oncol. (1997) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities