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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

A pharmacokinetic model describing pulsatile uptake of orally-administered carbon tetrachloride.

Many rodent bioassays have been conducted using oral gavage for delivery of test chemicals. Highly lipophilic compounds are generally administered to rodents dissolved in corn oil, a dosing vehicle shown to influence xenobiotic toxicity, carcinogenicity and pharmacokinetics by altering chemical absorption processes. In this paper, we present a multi-compartmental description of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract linked to a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) model to describe the complex oral uptake of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) administered in corn oil and 0.25% Emulphor. The GI submodel was described using a series of subcompartments, each subcompartment described with an absorption constant (Ka, 1/h), a bioavailability term (A, unitless), and a compartment emptying time (T, h). The model was parameterized by fitting multi-peak blood and exhaled breath chamber concentration-time profiles following oral gavage of CCl4 in corn oil and aqueous vehicles to male Fischer 344 rats. Successful fitting of experimental data was accomplished by varying values of Ka, A, and T until adequate fits were obtained. Values of Ka and A required to fit data from aqueous gavage were greater than corn oil. Utilization of the multi-compartmental GI tract submodel provided increased precision in fitting complex oral uptake profiles compared to previously used one- and two-compartment oral uptake models. This model provides estimates of absorption rate constants and bioavailabilities as well as providing a framework for generation of more complete, physiologically-realistic descriptions of oral absorption.[1]


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