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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Gastrointestinal Tract

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Disease relevance of Gastrointestinal Tract


Psychiatry related information on Gastrointestinal Tract


High impact information on Gastrointestinal Tract


Chemical compound and disease context of Gastrointestinal Tract


Biological context of Gastrointestinal Tract

  • Each enhancer can direct expression in the appropriate tissues, the visceral endoderm of the yolk sac, the fetal liver, and the gastrointestinal tract, but each exerts different influence in these three tissues [21].
  • This data, coupled with the introduction of sophisticated RNA detection techniques designed to elucidate patterns of gene expression of the UGT superfamily in human liver and extrahepatic tissues of the gastrointestinal tract, has aided in understanding the contribution of glucuronidation toward epithelial first-pass metabolism [22].
  • Our results show that oral immunization with TT and the mucosal adjuvant CT selectively induced antigen-specific Th2-type responses which may represent the major helper cell phenotype involved in mucosal IgA responses in the GI tract [2].
  • During gestation, AFP were produced by the yolk sac, the fetal liver, and in small amounts by the fetal gastrointestinal tract; there was no synthesis by maternal rat tissues [23].
  • (c) Since totally depancreatized dogs had normal serum levels of IRG (originating presumably from the gastrointestinal tract), the question of essentiality of basal glucagon activity in glucose homeostasis during exercise could not be resolved by these experiments [24].

Anatomical context of Gastrointestinal Tract


Associations of Gastrointestinal Tract with chemical compounds

  • I report here that the combined antagonism of peripheral H1 and H2 receptors for histamine (1) attenuates drinking elicited by normal food-contingent stimulation of the gastrointestinal tract and (2) abolishes drinking elicited by pregastric food-contingent stimulation during sham feeding in the rat [30].
  • The macrolide antibiotic erythromycin also interacted with the cloned motilin receptor, providing a molecular basis for its effects on the human GI tract [31].
  • In laboratory rodents, concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) are exceedingly high (up to 7 to 8 millimolar) in the glandular gastric tissue compared to concentrations in other portions of the gastrointestinal tract or to those of most other organs [32].
  • Cost-effectiveness of misoprostol for prophylaxis against nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastrointestinal tract bleeding [33].
  • The overall incidences of GI tract adverse effects were 19% for placebo; 28%, 25%, and 26% for celecoxib 100 mg, 200 mg, and 400 mg twice per day, respectively; and 31 % for naproxen [28].

Gene context of Gastrointestinal Tract


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gastrointestinal Tract


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  2. Helper T cell subsets for immunoglobulin A responses: oral immunization with tetanus toxoid and cholera toxin as adjuvant selectively induces Th2 cells in mucosa associated tissues. Xu-Amano, J., Kiyono, H., Jackson, R.J., Staats, H.F., Fujihashi, K., Burrows, P.D., Elson, C.O., Pillai, S., McGhee, J.R. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Isolation and characterization of an immortal neoplastic cell line (KS Y-1) from AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Lunardi-Iskandar, Y., Gill, P., Lam, V.H., Zeman, R.A., Michaels, F., Mann, D.L., Reitz, M.S., Kaplan, M., Berneman, Z.N., Carter, D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Reg IV activates the epidermal growth factor receptor/Akt/AP-1 signaling pathway in colon adenocarcinomas. Bishnupuri, K.S., Luo, Q., Murmu, N., Houchen, C.W., Anant, S., Dieckgraefe, B.K. Gastroenterology (2006) [Pubmed]
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  10. Salvia miltiorrhiza extract inhibits alcohol absorption, preference, and discrimination in sP rats. Colombo, G., Agabio, R., Lobina, C., Reali, R., Morazzoni, P., Bombardelli, E., Gessa, G.L. Alcohol (1999) [Pubmed]
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  14. Nitric oxide synthase activity in infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Vanderwinden, J.M., Mailleux, P., Schiffmann, S.N., Vanderhaeghen, J.J., De Laet, M.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Association of an isomeric species of carcinoembryonic antigen with neoplasia of the gastrointestinal tract. Edgington, T.S., Astarita, R.W., Plow, E.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  16. Protective effect of prostaglandin E2 in the gastrointestinal tract during indomethacin treatment of rheumatic diseases. Johansson, C., Kollberg, B., Nordemar, R., Samuelson, K., Bergström, S. Gastroenterology (1980) [Pubmed]
  17. Intratracheal IL-13 induces eosinophilic esophagitis by an IL-5, eotaxin-1, and STAT6-dependent mechanism. Mishra, A., Rothenberg, M.E. Gastroenterology (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Vascular IgA and C3 deposition in gastrointestinal tract of patients with Henoch-Schoenlein purpura. Touchard, G., Maire, P., Beauchant, M., Doeuvre, P., Babin, P., Pecheur, H., Becq-Giraudon, B., Matuchansky, C. Lancet (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Oral norfloxacin for prevention of gram-negative bacterial infections in patients with acute leukemia and granulocytopenia. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Karp, J.E., Merz, W.G., Hendricksen, C., Laughon, B., Redden, T., Bamberger, B.J., Bartlett, J.G., Saral, R., Burke, P.J. Ann. Intern. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Prevention of infection in critically ill patients by selective decontamination of the digestive tract. Cockerill, F.R., Muller, S.R., Anhalt, J.P., Marsh, H.M., Farnell, M.B., Mucha, P., Gillespie, D.J., Ilstrup, D.M., Larson-Keller, J.J., Thompson, R.L. Ann. Intern. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Diversity of alpha-fetoprotein gene expression in mice is generated by a combination of separate enhancer elements. Hammer, R.E., Krumlauf, R., Camper, S.A., Brinster, R.L., Tilghman, S.M. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases: metabolism, expression, and disease. Tukey, R.H., Strassburg, C.P. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Tissue sites of alpha fetoprotein synthesis by the rat during pregnancy and hepatoma growth. Sell, S., Skelly, H. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1976) [Pubmed]
  24. The essentiality of insulin and the role of glucagon in regulating glucose utilization and production during strenuous exercise in dogs. Vranic, M., Kawamori, R., Pek, S., Kovacevic, N., Wrenshall, G.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  25. Mid-gestational lethality in mice lacking keratin 8. Baribault, H., Price, J., Miyai, K., Oshima, R.G. Genes Dev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. The mesenchymal winged helix transcription factor Fkh6 is required for the control of gastrointestinal proliferation and differentiation. Kaestner, K.H., Silberg, D.G., Traber, P.G., Schütz, G. Genes Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. pha-4, an HNF-3 homolog, specifies pharyngeal organ identity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Horner, M.A., Quintin, S., Domeier, M.E., Kimble, J., Labouesse, M., Mango, S.E. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Anti-inflammatory and upper gastrointestinal effects of celecoxib in rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Simon, L.S., Weaver, A.L., Graham, D.Y., Kivitz, A.J., Lipsky, P.E., Hubbard, R.C., Isakson, P.C., Verburg, K.M., Yu, S.S., Zhao, W.W., Geis, G.S. JAMA (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. The neuropeptide neuromedin U promotes inflammation by direct activation of mast cells. Moriyama, M., Sato, T., Inoue, H., Fukuyama, S., Teranishi, H., Kangawa, K., Kano, T., Yoshimura, A., Kojima, M. J. Exp. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Histamine plays a part in induction of drinking by food intake. Kraly, F.S. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  31. Receptor for motilin identified in the human gastrointestinal system. Feighner, S.D., Tan, C.P., McKee, K.K., Palyha, O.C., Hreniuk, D.L., Pong, S.S., Austin, C.P., Figueroa, D., MacNeil, D., Cascieri, M.A., Nargund, R., Bakshi, R., Abramovitz, M., Stocco, R., Kargman, S., O'Neill, G., Van Der Ploeg, L.H., Evans, J., Patchett, A.A., Smith, R.G., Howard, A.D. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. High concentrations of glutathione in glandular stomach: possible implications for carcinogenesis. Body, S.C., Sasame, H.A., Body, M.R. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  33. Cost-effectiveness of misoprostol for prophylaxis against nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastrointestinal tract bleeding. Edelson, J.T., Tosteson, A.N., Sax, P. JAMA (1990) [Pubmed]
  34. Epithelial immaturity and multiorgan failure in mice lacking epidermal growth factor receptor. Miettinen, P.J., Berger, J.E., Meneses, J., Phung, Y., Pedersen, R.A., Werb, Z., Derynck, R. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  35. The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is essential for vascularization of the gastrointestinal tract. Tachibana, K., Hirota, S., Iizasa, H., Yoshida, H., Kawabata, K., Kataoka, Y., Kitamura, Y., Matsushima, K., Yoshida, N., Nishikawa, S., Kishimoto, T., Nagasawa, T. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Pathogenic Escherichia coli increase Cl- secretion from intestinal epithelia by upregulating galanin-1 receptor expression. Hecht, G., Marrero, J.A., Danilkovich, A., Matkowskyj, K.A., Savkovic, S.D., Koutsouris, A., Benya, R.V. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  37. Constitutive activation of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor expressed by the nonmalignant human colon epithelial cell line NCM460. Ferris, H.A., Carroll, R.E., Rasenick, M.M., Benya, R.V. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  38. Reciprocal regulation of gastrointestinal homeostasis by SHP2 and STAT-mediated trefoil gene activation in gp130 mutant mice. Tebbutt, N.C., Giraud, A.S., Inglese, M., Jenkins, B., Waring, P., Clay, F.J., Malki, S., Alderman, B.M., Grail, D., Hollande, F., Heath, J.K., Ernst, M. Nat. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
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  40. Expression of 5-HT3 receptors in the rat gastrointestinal tract. Glatzle, J., Sternini, C., Robin, C., Zittel, T.T., Wong, H., Reeve, J.R., Raybould, H.E. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  41. Spasmolytic polypeptide: a trefoil peptide secreted by rat gastric mucous cells. Jeffrey, G.P., Oates, P.S., Wang, T.C., Babyatsky, M.W., Brand, S.J. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
  42. Distribution and density of substance P receptors in the feline gastrointestinal tract using autoradiography. Rothstein, R.D., Johnson, E., Ouyang, A. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
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