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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Expression of Pax-3 is initiated in the early neural plate by posteriorizing signals produced by the organizer and by posterior non-axial mesoderm.

Pax-3 is a paired-type homeobox gene that is specifically expressed in the dorsal and posterior neural tube. We have investigated inductive interactions that initiate Pax-3 transcript expression in the early neural plate. We present several lines of evidence that support a model where Pax-3 expression is initiated by signals that posteriorize the neuraxis, and then secondarily restricted dorsally in response to dorsal-ventral patterning signals. First, in chick and Xenopus gastrulae the onset of Pax-3 expression occurs in regions fated to become posterior CNS. Second, Hensen's node and posterior non-axial mesoderm which underlies the neural plate induce Pax-3 expression when combined with presumptive anterior neural plate explants. In contrast, presumptive anterior neural plate explants are not competent to express Pax-3 in response to dorsalizing signals from epidermal-ectoderm. Third, in a heterospecies explant recombinant assay with Xenopus animal caps (ectoderm) as a responding tissue, late, but not early, Hensen's node induces Pax-3 expression. Chick posterior non-axial mesoderm also induces Pax-3, provided that the animal caps are neuralized by treatment with noggin. Finally we show that the putative posteriorizing factors, retinoic acid and bFGF, induce Pax-3 in neuralized animal caps. However, blocking experiments with a dominant-inhibitory FGF receptor and a dominant-inhibitory retinoic acid receptor suggest that Pax-3 inductive activities arising from Hensen's node and posterior non-axial mesoderm do not strictly depend on FGF or retinoic acid.[1]


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