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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Ectoderm

  • By using a murine retrovirus to ectopically express Wnt-7b in presumptive dental ectoderm in mandibular arch explants, we show that Shh expression in the ectoderm and Ptc expression in the underlying ectomesenchyme are down-regulated, and tooth development is subsequently arrested [1].
  • Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominant disease which predominantly affects tissues derived from neural ectoderm [2].
  • During embryogenesis, Scr accumulation is observed in a discrete spatiotemporal pattern that includes the labial and prothoracic ectoderm, the subesophageal ganglion of the ventral nerve cord and the visceral mesoderm of the anterior and posterior midgut [3].
  • Immunohistochemistry with a melatonin antibody raised in sheep revealed an exclusively neuronal distribution of melatonin-immunoreactivity (MEL-IR) in the endodermal septal filaments wrapped around gametophores, in endodermal walls of the rachis, and in the ectoderm of polyps [4].
  • About 49 to 52% of the H3 glucosamine-labeled glycosaminoglycan that is synthesized by explanted ectoderm can be identified as hyaluronic acid on the basis of its susceptibility to Streptomyces hyaluronidase or isolation of chondroitinase ABC digestion products [5].

Psychiatry related information on Ectoderm

  • Expression of Id2, Id3, and Id4 in these explants is unaffected by the expression of FGF-8 or a dominant-negative Ras (N17ras), suggesting that Id genes are not regulated by the FGF signaling pathway in naive ectoderm [6].

High impact information on Ectoderm

  • In contrast, ectoderm specification requires the TGF-beta response to be attenuated, although the mechanisms by which this is achieved remain unknown [7].
  • Ets1/2 mediates general FGF responsiveness, while the restricted activity of GATAa targets the neural program to the ectoderm [8].
  • Finally, we also show that the induction of Fgf-8 in the limb ectoderm by FGF-10 is mediated by the induction of Wnt-3a [9].
  • Shp2 is specifically required in mesenchyme cells of the progress zone (PZ), directly beneath the distal ectoderm of the limb bud [10].
  • We propose that spatial regulation of the SAX pathway modulates TKV signaling to create positional information over the embryonic ectoderm [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Ectoderm


Biological context of Ectoderm

  • Here, we show that noggin promotes ventral development in Drosophila, specifying ventral ectoderm and CNS in the absence of all endogenous ventral-specific zygotic gene expression [13].
  • In eutherian mammals, although either X chromosome can be inactivated at random in somatic cells, preferential inactivation of the paternally derived X chromosome has been demonstrated cytologically in mouse and rat yolk sac and mouse chorion and biochemically in mouse yolk sac, chorionic ectoderm and trophoblast [14].
  • We find that the Scr gene product is expressed in a dynamic pattern over the course of embryogenesis, beginning in the ectoderm in parasegment 2 while the germ band is elongated and extending to parasegment 3 during the completion of germ band shortening [15].
  • To test whether LEF-1 patterning might be functionally important for hair patterning and morphogenesis, we used transgenic technology to alter the patterning and timing of LEF-1 over the surface ectoderm [16].
  • Disruption of the HNF-4 gene, expressed in visceral endoderm, leads to cell death in embryonic ectoderm and impaired gastrulation of mouse embryos [17].

Anatomical context of Ectoderm


Associations of Ectoderm with chemical compounds

  • These data correlate with the observations that PKC preparations from dorsal and ventral ectoderm differ, the dorsal PKC preparation being more susceptible to activation by TPA and diolein than is the ventral PKC preparation [23].
  • The expression of transcripts encoding the alpha-subunit common to three pituitary glycoprotein hormones in the single layer of somatic ectoderm on embryonic day 11 established that primordial pituitary cell commitment occurs prior to formation of a definitive Rathke's pouch [24].
  • Retinoic-acid signalling in node ectoderm and posterior neural plate directs left-right patterning of somitic mesoderm [25].
  • To test whether protein synthesis is required for competence loss, ectoderm was treated with cycloheximide during the normal time that competence is lost; in some cases, this treatment had no effect and in others it prolonged competence, but only slightly [26].
  • Using a subtractive cDNA library between untreated and caffeine-treated animal caps, i.e., control ectoderm and ectoderm induced toward a neural fate by a release of Ca2+, we have isolated the arginine N-methyltransferase, xPRMT1b, a Ca2+-induced target gene, which plays a pivotal role in this process [27].

Gene context of Ectoderm

  • Wnt7a, which is expressed in dorsal ectoderm, provides the signal required for Shh expression and formation of posterior structures [28].
  • Mutations in the Drosophila tolloid (tld) gene lead to a partial transformation of dorsal ectoderm into ventral ectoderm [29].
  • A gradient of Decapentaplegic (Dpp) activity subdivides the dorsal ectoderm of the Drosophila embryo into amnioserosa and dorsal epidermis [30].
  • Here we show that the Meis1 and Meis2 homeoproteins are direct regulators of Pax6 expression in prospective lens ectoderm [31].
  • Establishment of ventral cell fates in the Drosophila embryonic ectoderm requires DER, the EGF receptor homolog [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ectoderm


  1. Wnt/Shh interactions regulate ectodermal boundary formation during mammalian tooth development. Sarkar, L., Cobourne, M., Naylor, S., Smalley, M., Dale, T., Sharpe, P.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Neurofibromatosis: from gene to phenotype. Ponder, B.A. Semin. Cancer Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Characterization of the cis-regulatory region of the Drosophila homeotic gene Sex combs reduced. Gindhart, J.G., King, A.N., Kaufman, T.C. Genetics (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Melatonin in a primitive metazoan: seasonal changes of levels and immunohistochemical visualization in neurons. Mechawar, N., Anctil, M. J. Comp. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. The synthesis of hyaluronic acid by ectoderm during early organogenesis in the chick embryo. Solursh, M., Fisher, M., Singley, C.T. Differentiation (1979) [Pubmed]
  6. Cloning and characterization of Xenopus Id4 reveals differing roles for Id genes. Liu, K.J., Harland, R.M. Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Germ-layer specification and control of cell growth by Ectodermin, a Smad4 ubiquitin ligase. Dupont, S., Zacchigna, L., Cordenonsi, M., Soligo, S., Adorno, M., Rugge, M., Piccolo, S. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Neural tissue in ascidian embryos is induced by FGF9/16/20, acting via a combination of maternal GATA and Ets transcription factors. Bertrand, V., Hudson, C., Caillol, D., Popovici, C., Lemaire, P. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. WNT signals control FGF-dependent limb initiation and AER induction in the chick embryo. Kawakami, Y., Capdevila, J., Büscher, D., Itoh, T., Rodríguez Esteban, C., Izpisúa Belmonte, J.C. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. The SH2 tyrosine phosphatase shp2 is required for mammalian limb development. Saxton, T.M., Ciruna, B.G., Holmyard, D., Kulkarni, S., Harpal, K., Rossant, J., Pawson, T. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Spatially restricted activation of the SAX receptor by SCW modulates DPP/TKV signaling in Drosophila dorsal-ventral patterning. Neul, J.L., Ferguson, E.L. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Glomus tumors of the temporal bone: electron microscopic and immunohistochemical evaluation. Farrior, J.B., Packer, J.T. Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. The Xenopus dorsalizing factor noggin ventralizes Drosophila embryos by preventing DPP from activating its receptor. Holley, S.A., Neul, J.L., Attisano, L., Wrana, J.L., Sasai, Y., O'Connor, M.B., De Robertis, E.M., Ferguson, E.L. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. X-chromosome inactivation in extra-embryonic membranes of diploid parthenogenetic mouse embryos demonstrated by differential staining. Rastan, S., Kaufman, M.H., Handyside, A.H., Lyon, M.F. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. The expression and regulation of Sex combs reduced protein in Drosophila embryos. Riley, P.D., Carroll, S.B., Scott, M.P. Genes Dev. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Lymphoid enhancer factor 1 directs hair follicle patterning and epithelial cell fate. Zhou, P., Byrne, C., Jacobs, J., Fuchs, E. Genes Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Disruption of the HNF-4 gene, expressed in visceral endoderm, leads to cell death in embryonic ectoderm and impaired gastrulation of mouse embryos. Chen, W.S., Manova, K., Weinstein, D.C., Duncan, S.A., Plump, A.S., Prezioso, V.R., Bachvarova, R.F., Darnell, J.E. Genes Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. The function of PS integrins during Drosophila embryogenesis. Leptin, M., Bogaert, T., Lehmann, R., Wilcox, M. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Inhibition of activin receptor signaling promotes neuralization in Xenopus. Hemmati-Brivanlou, A., Melton, D.A. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Function of Rieger syndrome gene in left-right asymmetry and craniofacial development. Lu, M.F., Pressman, C., Dyer, R., Johnson, R.L., Martin, J.F. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Regulation of vertebrate left-right asymmetries by extracellular matrix. Yost, H.J. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Dynamic expression pattern of the myc protooncogene in midgestation mouse embryos. Schmid, P., Schulz, W.A., Hameister, H. Science (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Protein kinase C and regulation of the local competence of Xenopus ectoderm. Otte, A.P., Kramer, I.M., Durston, A.J. Science (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Pituitary cell phenotypes involve cell-specific Pit-1 mRNA translation and synergistic interactions with other classes of transcription factors. Simmons, D.M., Voss, J.W., Ingraham, H.A., Holloway, J.M., Broide, R.S., Rosenfeld, M.G., Swanson, L.W. Genes Dev. (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. Retinoic-acid signalling in node ectoderm and posterior neural plate directs left-right patterning of somitic mesoderm. Sirbu, I.O., Duester, G. Nat. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Loss of competence in amphibian induction can take place in single nondividing cells. Grainger, R.M., Gurdon, J.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  27. The Ca2+-induced methyltransferase xPRMT1b controls neural fate in amphibian embryo. Batut, J., Vandel, L., Leclerc, C., Daguzan, C., Moreau, M., Néant, I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Interaction between the signaling molecules WNT7a and SHH during vertebrate limb development: dorsal signals regulate anteroposterior patterning. Yang, Y., Niswander, L. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. The Drosophila dorsal-ventral patterning gene tolloid is related to human bone morphogenetic protein 1. Shimell, M.J., Ferguson, E.L., Childs, S.R., O'Connor, M.B. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. Local inhibition and long-range enhancement of Dpp signal transduction by Sog. Ashe, H.L., Levine, M. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Meis homeoproteins directly regulate Pax6 during vertebrate lens morphogenesis. Zhang, X., Friedman, A., Heaney, S., Purcell, P., Maas, R.L. Genes Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Establishment of ventral cell fates in the Drosophila embryonic ectoderm requires DER, the EGF receptor homolog. Raz, E., Shilo, B.Z. Genes Dev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  33. Structure and distribution of the Notch protein in developing Drosophila. Kidd, S., Baylies, M.K., Gasic, G.P., Young, M.W. Genes Dev. (1989) [Pubmed]
  34. Role of glypican 4 in the regulation of convergent extension movements during gastrulation in Xenopus laevis. Ohkawara, B., Yamamoto, T.S., Tada, M., Ueno, N. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Dissection of the faint little ball (flb) phenotype: determination of the development of the Drosophila central nervous system by early interactions in the ectoderm. Raz, E., Shilo, B.Z. Development (1992) [Pubmed]
  36. The transcription factor HNF3beta is required in visceral endoderm for normal primitive streak morphogenesis. Dufort, D., Schwartz, L., Harpal, K., Rossant, J. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. Tsukushi controls ectodermal patterning and neural crest specification in Xenopus by direct regulation of BMP4 and X-delta-1 activity. Kuriyama, S., Lupo, G., Ohta, K., Ohnuma, S., Harris, W.A., Tanaka, H. Development (2006) [Pubmed]
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