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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The effect of cholecystokinin tetrapeptide on respiratory resistance in healthy volunteers.

The effects of cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4) on respiratory resistance were studied in 14 healthy volunteers by the registration of slow vital capacity and flow volume loop during forced respiration test. The administration of CCK-4 (50 micrograms) was performed in a double-blind and placebo-controlled design. Injections of CCK-4 induced prominent and time-limited paniclike symptoms in all healthy volunteers. Four volunteers (29%) experienced a panic attack. Subjective dyspnea was experienced by the majority of subjects at the peak of CCK-4 effect and seemed related to a diminution in vital capacity parameters; however, the forced respiration test did not reveal bronchoconstriction after CCK-4 challenge. Administration of CCK-4 also induced a short-lasting increase in heart rate and skin blood flow. This study suggests that dyspnea induced by CCK-4 is not related to changes in respiratory resistance.[1]


  1. The effect of cholecystokinin tetrapeptide on respiratory resistance in healthy volunteers. Shlik, J., Vasar, V., Aluoja, A., Kingisepp, P.H., Jagomägi, K., Vasar, E., Rägo, L., Bradwejn, J. Biol. Psychiatry (1997) [Pubmed]
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